Senin, 31 Januari 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Monday, January 31, 2011

Welcome to another edition of ScienceDaily's email newsletter. You can change your subscription options or unsubscribe at any time.

Cheap, clean ways to produce hydrogen for use in fuel cells? A dash of disorder yields a very efficient photocatalyst (January 30, 2011) -- A little disorder goes a long way, especially when it comes to harnessing the sun's energy. Scientists have jumbled the atomic structure of the surface layer of titanium dioxide nanocrystals, creating a catalyst that is both long lasting and more efficient than all other materials in using the sun's energy to extract hydrogen from water. ... > full story

Scientists unlock the 'gates' on sudden cardiac death (January 30, 2011) -- Australian researchers have come one step closer to understanding how the rhythm of the heartbeat is controlled and why many common drugs, including some antibiotics, antihistamines and anti-psychotics, can cause a potentially fatal abnormal heart rhythm. ... > full story

GRIN plasmonics: A practical path to superfast computing, ultrapowerful optical microscopy and invisibility carpet-cloaking devices (January 30, 2011) -- Researchers have carried out the first experimental demonstration of GRIN plasmonics, a hybrid technology that opens the door to a wide range of exotic applications in optics, including superfast photonic computers, ultra-powerful optical microscopes and "invisibility" carpet-cloaking devices. ... > full story

Powerful 3-D X-rays for kids in braces should be the exception, not the rule (January 30, 2011) -- Some orthodontists may be exposing young patients to unnecessary radiation when they order 3-D X-ray imaging for simple orthodontic cases before considering traditional 2-D imaging, suggests a new article. ... > full story

A clearer picture of how rivers and deltas develop (January 30, 2011) -- By adding information about the subsoil to an existing sedimentation and erosion model, researchers have obtained a clearer picture of how rivers and deltas develop over time. A better understanding of the interaction between the subsoil and flow processes in a river-delta system can play a key role in civil engineering (delta management), but also in geology (especially in the work of reservoir geologists). ... > full story

New era of advances in brain research: As recording technology rapidly improves, neurons give up their secrets cell by cell (January 30, 2011) -- Thanks to improvements in technology and data analysis, our understanding of the functional principles that guide the development and operation of the brain could improve drastically in the next few years, scientists report. The advances could herald a neuroscientific revolution, much as increasing processor speeds paved the way for the computing revolution of the last half century. ... > full story

Gene 'relocation' key to most evolutionary change in bacteria (January 30, 2011) -- Scientists have now shown that bacteria evolve new abilities, such as antibiotic resistance, predominantly by acquiring genes from other bacteria. The researchers new insights into the evolution of bacteria partly contradict the widely accepted theory that new biological functions in bacteria and other microbes arise primarily through the process of gene duplication within the same organism. ... > full story

Powerful new painkiller with no apparent side effects or addictive qualities, may be ready in a year (January 30, 2011) -- A powerful new painkiller with no apparent side effects or addictive qualities, may now be only a year or two from the consumer market. ... > full story

Regenerative medicine advance: New 'cocktails' support long-term maintenance of human embryonic stem cells (January 30, 2011) -- A team of stem cell biologists and engineers, using a feedback system control scheme, has innovatively and efficiently identified an optimal combination and concentration of small molecule inhibitors from a very large pool of possibilities to support the long-term maintenance of human embryonic stem cells. This is a major advancement towards the quest to broadly transition regenerative medicine from the bench top to the clinic. ... > full story

Celiac disease and Crohn's disease share part of their genetic background (January 30, 2011) -- An investigation has found that celiac disease and Crohn's disease, both inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, share at least four genetic risk loci. Researchers performed a combined meta-analysis of genome-wide data for celiac disease and Crohn's disease. This meta-analysis has identified two new shared risk loci and two shared risk loci that had previously been independently identified for each disease. ... > full story

Wheat resistance genes failing, new approach needed to stop flies (January 30, 2011) -- Many of the genes that allow wheat to ward off Hessian flies are no longer effective in the southeastern United States, and care should be taken to ensure that resistance genes that so far haven't been utilized in commercial wheat lines are used prudently, according to scientists. ... > full story

Retired NFL players misuse painkillers more than general population, study finds (January 30, 2011) -- Retired NFL players use painkillers at four times the rate of the general population, according to a new study. The researchers say the brutal collisions and bone-jarring injuries associated with football often cause long-term pain, which contributes to continued use and abuse of pain-killing medications. ... > full story

Learn more quickly by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation, study in rats suggests (January 29, 2011) -- What sounds like science fiction is actually possible: thanks to magnetic stimulation, the activity of certain brain nerve cells can be deliberately influenced. What happens in the brain in this context has been unclear up to now. Medical experts have now shown that various stimulus patterns changed the activity of distinct neuronal cell types. In addition, certain stimulus patterns led to rats learning more easily. ... > full story

Mini-strokes leave 'hidden' brain damage (January 29, 2011) -- A transient ischemic attack is sometimes known as a mini-stroke. New research shows these attacks may not be transient at all. They in fact create lasting damage to the brain. ... > full story

Cocaine production increases destruction of Colombia’s rainforests (January 29, 2011) -- Scientists are reporting new evidence that cultivating coca bushes, the source of cocaine, is speeding up destruction of rainforests in Colombia and threatening the region's "hotspots" of plant and animal diversity. The findings underscore the need for establishing larger protected areas to help preserve biodiversity. ... > full story

Growth spurt? 'Catch-up' growth signals revealed (January 29, 2011) -- Researchers have uncovered molecular signals that regulate catch-up growth -- the growth spurt that occurs when normal conditions are restored after a fetus, young animal or child has been ill, under stress or deprived of enough food or oxygen to grow properly. ... > full story

New glasses change lens color on the fly (January 29, 2011) -- New protective eyewear will eliminate the need for warfighters to stop to change out colored lenses to accommodate differences in light levels. ... > full story

Presence of peers heightens teens' sensitivity to rewards of a risk (January 29, 2011) -- Teenagers take more risks when they are with their friends. A new study sheds light on why. The findings demonstrate that when teens are with their friends they are more sensitive to the rewards of a risk than when alone. ... > full story

DNA caught rock 'n rollin': On rare occasions DNA dances itself into a different shape (January 29, 2011) -- DNA, that marvelous, twisty molecule of life, has an alter ego, research reveals. On rare occasions, its building blocks "rock and roll," deforming the familiar double helix into a different shape. ... > full story

Premature infants' lungs may improve with better nutrition (January 29, 2011) -- Improving lung function in premature babies with a severe lung disease may be linked to their feeding regimen, according to a new study. ... > full story

More frequent drought likely in eastern Africa (January 29, 2011) -- The increased frequency of drought observed in eastern Africa over the last 20 years is likely to continue as long as global temperatures continue to rise, according to new research. This poses increased risk to the estimated 17.5 million people in the Greater Horn of Africa who currently face potential food shortages. ... > full story

Voice-saver: Light therapy for early-stage laryngeal cancer (January 29, 2011) -- A new study finds light, or photodynamic therapy, can help preserve the voice in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer. Photodynamic therapy works by destroying deadly cancer cells without harming surrounding healthy tissue by using a powerful laser and a nontoxic, light-activated drug. It also has fewer side-effects than radiation and surgery. ... > full story

Draft 'genetic road map' of biofuels crop (January 29, 2011) -- The first rough draft of a "genetic road map" of a biomass crop, prairie cordgrass, is giving scientists an inside look at the genes of one of the crops that may help produce the next generation of biofuels. ... > full story

Helping others helps alcoholics stay on the road to recovery (January 29, 2011) -- Participating in community service activities and helping others is not just good for the soul; it has a healing effect that helps alcoholics and other addicts become and stay sober, new research shows. ... > full story

Infants ascribe social dominance to larger individuals (January 28, 2011) -- Psychologists have found that infants less than one year old understand social dominance and use relative size to predict who will prevail when two individuals' goals conflict. The lead author says the work suggests we may be born with -- or develop at a very early age -- some understanding of social dominance and how it relates to relative size, a correlation ubiquitous across human cultures and the animal kingdom. ... > full story

Novel surgery removes rare tumor, rebuilds trachea (January 28, 2011) -- Using a novel surgical approach, it's possible to rebuild the trachea and preserve a patient's voice after removing an invasive throat tumor, according to a new article. This case study is the first of its kind to not only document a successful technique to create a fully functional trachea, or windpipe, but also report a rare type of malignant tumor in an adult's trachea. ... > full story

Global eruption rocks the Sun: Scientists re-evaluate ideas about solar storms (January 28, 2011) -- On August 1, 2010, an entire hemisphere of the sun erupted. Filaments of magnetism snapped and exploded, shock waves raced across the stellar surface, billion-ton clouds of hot gas billowed into space. Astronomers knew they had witnessed something big. It was so big, it may have shattered old ideas about solar activity. ... > full story

Smoking widespread among youth with diabetes, raising heart disease risk (January 28, 2011) -- A study found cigarette smoking is widespread among children and young adults with diabetes yet few health care providers are counseling children and young adults with diabetes to not smoke or stop smoking. Children and young adults with diabetes are already at high risk for heart disease before they take up smoking but few studies have examined the association between cigarette smoking and heart disease risk factors in youth with diabetes. ... > full story

Air above Dead Sea contains very high levels of oxidized mercury (January 28, 2011) -- Measurements show that the sea's salt has profound effects on the chemistry of the air above its surface. The atmosphere over the Dead Sea, researchers have found, is laden with oxidized mercury. Some of the highest levels of oxidized mercury ever observed outside the polar regions exist there. ... > full story

The Oscar curse? Oscar win for best actress increases the risk of divorce, study suggests (January 28, 2011) -- Will Academy Award nominees Nicole Kidman and Annette Bening be at higher risk for a divorce if they win the Oscar for best actress next month? A new study finds that Oscar winners in the Best Actress category are at a higher risk of divorce than nominees who do not win. By contrast, Best Actor winners do not experience an increase in the risk of divorce after an Oscar. ... > full story

Cow rumen enzymes for better biofuels (January 28, 2011) -- When it comes to breaking down plant matter and converting it to energy, the cow has it all figured out. Its digestive system allows it to eat more than 150 pounds of plant matter every day. Now researchers report that they have found dozens of previously unknown microbial enzymes in the bovine rumen -- the cow's primary grass-digestion chamber -- that contribute to the breakdown of switchgrass, a renewable biofuel energy source. ... > full story

Exposure to worm infection in the womb may protect against eczema, study suggests (January 28, 2011) -- Exposure to worm infections in the womb may protect a newborn infant from developing eczema, a new study suggests. A large trial in Uganda showed that treating a pregnant woman for worm infections increased her child's chances of developing the allergic skin disease. This research supports the so-called 'hygiene hypothesis', which proposes that exposure to infections in early childhood can modify the immune system and protect the child from allergies later in life. ... > full story

Understanding the human neurosystem by researching locust brains (January 28, 2011) -- Scientists have successfully cultured brain cells taken from the desert locust to delve deeper into the workings of the mammalian neurosystem. Easier to work with than human neurons, the use of these insect neurons allow the team to observe the neurons form a network, providing enormous benefits to researchers. The cells are basic enough to be applicable to any system, including the human neurosystem, researchers say. ... > full story

New therapies and gene target advance the treatment and understanding of hard-to-treat leukemias (January 28, 2011) -- Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of leukemia through the ongoing development of gene-based targeted therapies. New research provides greater understanding of the optimal use of several BCR-ABL inhibitors for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia, and how a new gene target functions for several myeloid malignancies. ... > full story

Rivers cut deep notches in the Alps' broad glacial valleys (January 28, 2011) -- New research shows that notches carved by rivers at the bottom of glacial valleys in the Swiss Alps survive from one glacial episode to the next, protected in part by the glaciers themselves. ... > full story

Perception of time spent with fathers can lead to bullying (January 28, 2011) -- Do your children think you work too much and don't spend enough time with them? If so, their perception could lead to bullying behavior, according to new research. ... > full story

Cancer drug aids regeneration of spinal cord after injuries (January 28, 2011) -- After a spinal cord injury a number of factors impede the regeneration of nerve cells. Two of the most important of these factors are the destabilization of the cytoskeleton and the development of scar tissue. While the former prevents regrowth of cells, the latter creates a barrier for severed nerve cells. Scientists have now shown that the cancer drug Taxol reduces both regeneration obstacles. ... > full story

Age of onset of puberty predicts adult osteoporosis risk: Later puberty results in lower bone mass (January 28, 2011) -- Researchers have determined that the onset of puberty was the primary influence on adult bone mineral density, or bone strength. ... > full story

On the hunt for universal intelligence (January 28, 2011) -- How do you use a scientific method to measure the intelligence of a human being, an animal, a machine or an extra-terrestrial? So far this has not been possible, but researchers have taken a first step towards this by presenting the foundations to be used as a basis for this method, and have also put forward a new intelligence test. ... > full story

Cold cases gone hot: Researchers solve decades-old medical mysteries using genetics (January 28, 2011) -- The mystery began in 1976. A patient was diagnosed with a rare form of cancer associated with the occurrence of multiple tumors in his stomach and colon. His medical team was stumped and was unable to answer the most important questions for him and his family: the cause of his disease and the risk for future generations. Now, 35 years later, the answers are at hand thanks to a new genetic study. ... > full story

Unlocking the secrets of DNA (January 28, 2011) -- Neutron scattering has provided the first experimental data showing how DNA structure changes as it 'melts'. This knowledge is a step towards technological applications of DNA, such as computer components. ... > full story

Social networking provides insights into leadership, trust and mobility (January 28, 2011) -- Computer scientists provide insights into how the analysis of our social networking interactions could discover things like the emergence or decline of leadership, changes in trust over time, and migration and mobility within particular communities online. ... > full story

Dinosaurs survived mass extinction by 700,000 years, fossil find suggests (January 28, 2011) -- Researchers have determined that a fossilized dinosaur bone found in New Mexico confounds the long established paradigm that the age of dinosaurs ended between 65.5 and 66 million years ago. ... > full story

How fusion protein triggers cancer (January 28, 2011) -- What happens when two proteins join together? In this case, they become like a power couple, where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. The fusion protein API2-MALT1 joins with the enzyme NIK and cuts it in two, making NIK a renegade protein that fuels lymphoma. ... > full story

Touchscreens made of carbon (January 28, 2011) -- Touchscreens are in – although the technology still has its price. The little screens contain rare and expensive elements. This is the reason why researchers are coming up with an alternative display made of low-priced renewable raw materials available all over the world. Researchers have now made prototype touchscreens that contain carbon nanotubes. ... > full story

Yearly mammograms from age 40 save 71 percent more lives, study shows (January 28, 2011) -- A new study questions the controversial US Preventative Service Task Force recommendations for breast cancer screening, with data that shows starting at a younger age and screening more frequently will result in more lives saved. ... > full story

Insects that deter predators produce fewer offspring (January 28, 2011) -- Insects that frequently use their defense mechanisms to deter predators could be reducing their lifespan and numbers of offspring, researchers have found. ... > full story

High school biology teachers in U.S. reluctant to endorse evolution in class, study finds (January 28, 2011) -- The majority of public high school biology teachers in the U.S. are not strong classroom advocates of evolutionary biology, despite 40 years of court cases that have ruled teaching creationism or intelligent design violates the Constitution, according to political scientists. A mandatory undergraduate course in evolutionary biology for prospective teachers, and frequent refresher courses for current teachers, may be part of the solution, they say. ... > full story

Copyright 1995-2010 © ScienceDaily LLC. All rights reserved. Terms of use.

This message was sent from ScienceDaily to It was sent from: ScienceDaily, 1 Research Court, Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20850. You can modify/update your subscription via the link below.

Email Marketing by
iContact - Try It Free!

To update/change your profile click here