Selasa, 25 Januari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Tuesday, January 25, 2011

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Smoking may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer (January 25, 2011) -- Smoking before menopause, especially prior to giving birth, may be associated with a modest increase in the risk of developing breast cancer, according to a new study. ... > full story

Weight loss plus walking essential for older, obese adults (January 25, 2011) -- Walking more and losing weight can improve mobility as much as 20 percent in older, obese adults with poor cardiovascular health, according to a new study. ... > full story

Out of mind in a matter of seconds: Surprising rate at which neuronal networks in cerebral cortex delete sensory information (January 25, 2011) -- The dynamics behind signal transmission in the brain are extremely chaotic, scientists in Germany have found. In addition, the researchers calculated, for the first time, how quickly information stored in the activity patterns of the cerebral cortex neurons is discarded. At one bit per active neuron per second, the speed at which this information is forgotten is surprisingly high. ... > full story

Lowering blood pressure in middle-aged women reduces heart disease risk (January 25, 2011) -- Middle-aged women worldwide lowering their blood pressure could prevent a substantial amount of cardiovascular disease, according to new research. High systolic blood pressure is the most powerful predictor of heart disease in these women, followed by high cholesterol and smoking. Diagnosing and treating high blood pressure in midlife could improve their health and quality of life. ... > full story

Medication dosing errors for infants and children (January 25, 2011) -- Preparing small doses of medication from syringes may be inaccurate and can result in crucial dosing errors for infants and children, according to a new study. ... > full story

Egg donation: The way to happy motherhood, with risks and side effects (January 25, 2011) -- Women who have become pregnant after egg donation should be categorized as high-risk patients. Why that is the case, and which consequences egg donation may have for women is the subject of a new review article. ... > full story

Deep brain stimulation may help hard-to-control high blood pressure (January 24, 2011) -- Researchers were surprised to discover what may be a potential new treatment for difficult-to-control high blood pressure, according to a newly reported case. ... > full story

Cost to treat heart disease in United States will triple by 2030 (January 24, 2011) -- The cost of treating heart disease in the United States will triple by 2030, according to new projections. The 5 billion increase is due in part to an aging population. The skyrocketing financial burden makes it urgent to implement effective strategies to prevent heart disease and stroke. ... > full story

Unrealistic optimism appears common in early cancer trials and may compromise informed consent (January 24, 2011) -- Can optimism be ethically problematic? Yes, according to a new study, which found unrealistic optimism prevalent among participants in early-phase cancer trials and suggested that it may compromise informed consent. ... > full story

Humans' critical ability to throw long distances aided by an illusion, study finds (January 24, 2011) -- New research shows how humans, unlike any other species on Earth, readily learn to throw long distances. This research also suggests that this unique evolutionary trait is entangled with language development in a way critical to our very existence. Findings suggest the size-weight illusion is more than just curious or interesting, but a necessary precursor to humans' ability to learn to throw -- and to throw far. ... > full story

Gene mutated in one in three patients with common form of renal cancer (January 24, 2011) -- Scientists have identified a gene that is mutated in one in three patients with the most common form of renal cancer. The gene -- called PBRM1 -- was found to be mutated in 88 cases out of 257 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) analysed, making it the most prevalent to be identified in renal cancer in 20 years. ... > full story

Breakthrough in understanding hereditary emphysema (January 24, 2011) -- Researchers in Ireland have made a breakthrough in understanding the mechanisms behind the most severe form of hereditary emphysema and how protein treatments can improve the condition. The findings of this study may also lead to new treatments for patients with smoker’s emphysema. ... > full story

How does anesthesia disturb self-perception? (January 24, 2011) -- Scientists were interested in studying the illusions described by many patients under regional anesthetic. In their work, the researchers demonstrated that anesthetizing an arm affects brain activity and rapidly impairs body perception. ... > full story

Blocking rogue gene could stop spread of cancer, new research suggests (January 24, 2011) -- Scientists in the UK have discovered a rogue gene involved in the spread of cancer in the body. By blocking the gene, they believe, cancer could be stopped in its tracks. ... > full story

Anti-estrogen medication reduces risk of dying from lung cancer, study finds (January 24, 2011) -- A new study has found that tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen breast cancer medication, may reduce an individual's risk of death from lung cancer. The study supports the hypothesis that there is a hormonal influence on lung cancer and that estrogen levels play a role in lung cancer patients' prognosis. ... > full story

Study predicts risk of memory loss in healthy, older adults (January 24, 2011) -- The combined results of a genetic blood test and a five-minute functional MRI done by researchers successfully classified more than three-quarters of healthy older adults, many of whom were destined to develop cognitive decline within 18 months of testing. ... > full story

Better learning through handwriting (January 24, 2011) -- Writing by hand strengthens the learning process. When typing on a keyboard, this process may be impaired. Neurophysiologists have examined research which goes a long way in confirming the significance of these differences. When writing by hand, our brain receives feedback from our motor actions, together with the sensation of touching a pencil and paper. These kinds of feedback is significantly different from those we receive when touching and typing on a keyboard. ... > full story

Unexpected find opens up new front in effort to stop HIV (January 24, 2011) -- HIV adapts in a surprising way to survive and thrive in its hiding spot within the human immune system, scientists have learned. The the finding helps explain why HIV remains such a formidable foe after three decades of research, and it offers scientists a new, unexpected way to try to stop the virus. ... > full story

Function of novel molecule that underlies human deafness revealed (January 24, 2011) -- New research has revealed that the molecular mechanism underlying deafness is caused by a mutation of a specific microRNA called miR-96. The discovery could provide the basis for treating progressive hearing loss and deafness. ... > full story

NFL linemen recover from back surgery, and so can you (January 24, 2011) -- If NFL linemen can recover from back surgery and return to their spine-bruising careers, so can you get back into your "game." A new study that found 80 percent of NFL lineman -- whose spines are especially vulnerable to degeneration -- were able to return to play many more games after herniated disc surgery. The study is encouraging to average people who are often fearful of becoming physically active after the surgery. ... > full story

Dangerous environments 'make parents more caring,' researchers find (January 24, 2011) -- Changes in the environment that put the lives of adults at risk drive parents to invest more in caring for their offspring, scientists have found. ... > full story

Genetic sequencing alone doesn't offer a true picture of human disease, research suggests (January 24, 2011) -- Despite what you might have heard, genetic sequencing alone is not enough to understand human disease. Researchers have shown that functional tests are absolutely necessary to understand the biological relevance of the results of sequencing studies as they relate to disease, using a suite of diseases known as the ciliopathies which can cause patients to have many different traits. ... > full story

Culprit found for increased stroke injury with diabetes (January 24, 2011) -- Strokes that involve intracerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) are especially deadly, and there are no effective treatments to control such bleeding. Moreover, diabetes and hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) are associated with increases in bleeding during hemorrhagic stroke and worse clinical outcomes. But researchers now have identified one key player that contributes to the increased bleeding. ... > full story

Stroke rate rises for patients with HIV infection (January 24, 2011) -- While the overall hospitalization rate for stroke has declined in recent years, the numbers have jumped dramatically for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, suggesting they may be up to three times more likely to suffer a stroke than people uninfected by the virus that causes AIDS. ... > full story

Awake despite anesthesia (January 24, 2011) -- Out of every 1000 patients, two at most wake up during their operation. Unintended awareness in the patient is thus classified as an occasional complication of anesthesia—but being aware of things happening during the operation, and being able to recall them later, can leave a patient with long-term psychological trauma. How to avoid such awareness events, and what treatment is available for a patient who does experience awareness, is the subject of a new report. ... > full story

CT scanning aids rapid diagnosis, treatment planning for abdominal pain (January 24, 2011) -- The use of CT scanning to evaluate abdominal pain in emergency departments can help physicians arrive at a diagnosis quickly and decisively. The new study also finds that information provided by CT scans changed treatment plans for almost half the patients studied and significantly reduced probable hospital admissions. ... > full story

Fat associated with chemical changes in DNA that may help explain obesity-related disease (January 24, 2011) -- Fat appears to associate with some distinctive chemical changes in the DNA -- a finding that may help explain why obesity can increase the risk for chronic problems such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, researchers report. The finding may one day help identify those at risk and reduce it. ... > full story

Coronary imaging enhances ability to identify plaques likely to cause future heart disease (January 24, 2011) -- Results from the PROSPECT clinical trial shed new light on the types of vulnerable plaque that are most likely to cause sudden, unexpected adverse cardiac events, and on the ability to identify them through imaging techniques before they occur. ... > full story

Obesity linked to economic insecurity (January 24, 2011) -- A new study suggests that people living in countries with 'free market' regimes are more likely to become obese due to the stress of being exposed to economic insecurity. ... > full story

Creating simplicity: How music fools the ear (January 24, 2011) -- What makes music beautiful? The best compositions transcend culture and time -- but what is the commonality which underscores their appeal? New research suggests that the brain simplifies complex patterns, much in the same way that "lossless" music compression formats reduce audio files, by removing redundant data and identifying patterns. ... > full story

Fighting the fight for healthy teeth (January 24, 2011) -- It is known that teeth can protect themselves, to some extent, from attack by bacteria but that inflammation within a tooth can be damaging and, in extreme cases, lead to abscess or death of the tooth. New research shows that odontoblast cells are part of the immune system and fight to protect teeth from decay. ... > full story

Study of nutrition, Alzheimer's links hampered by research approach (January 24, 2011) -- Research is trying to determine whether Alzheimer's disease might be slowed or prevented with nutritional approaches, but a new study suggests those efforts could be improved by use of nutrient "biomarkers" to objectively assess the nutrient status of elderly people at risk for dementia. ... > full story

Light controls a worm's behavior: Scientists commandeer organism's nervous system without wires or electrodes (January 23, 2011) -- Physicists and bioengineers have developed an optical instrument allowing them to control the behavior of a worm just by shining a tightly focused beam of light at individual neurons inside the organism. ... > full story

Beyond improving Parkinson's symptoms, does deep brain stimulation stall their progression? (January 23, 2011) -- Does DBS make a long-term difference in the motor symptoms of Parkinson's patients, even after the device has been turned off and medications discontinued? ... > full story

Contagious cancer thrives in dogs by adopting host's genes (January 23, 2011) -- A curious contagious cancer, found in dogs, wolves and coyotes, can repair its own genetic mutations by adopting genes from its host animal, according to a new study. ... > full story

Gene mutation play a major role in one cause of kidney disease (January 23, 2011) -- Mutations in a gene called INF2 are by far the most common cause of a dominantly inherited condition that leads to kidney failure, according to a new study. The results may help with screening, prevention, and therapy. ... > full story

Long-distance migration may help reduce infectious disease risks for many animal species (January 23, 2011) -- It's a common assumption that animal migration, like human travel across the globe, can transport pathogens long distances, in some cases increasing disease risks to humans. In some cases, animal migrations could actually help reduce the spread and prevalence of disease and may even promote the evolution of less-virulent disease strains, according to new research. ... > full story

Kidney gene implicated in increased heart failure risk (January 23, 2011) -- Scientists have identified the first DNA sequence variant common in the population that is not only associated with an increased risk of heart failure, but appears to play a role in causing it. The variant, a change in a single letter of the DNA sequence, impairs channels that control kidney function. ... > full story

Why do some diabetics escape complications? (January 23, 2011) -- Much research has been carried out on why diabetics develop complications. Now researchers are asking the question the other way around. They want to know why some diabetic patients do not develop complications. What is it that protects them? The PROLONG study could provide the answer. ... > full story

Apologies aren't as good as people imagine they'll be (January 23, 2011) -- We all want an apology when someone does us wrong. But a new study finds that people aren't very good at predicting how much they'll value an apology. ... > full story

Cracking a tooth: 3-D map of atoms sheds light on nanoscale interfaces in teeth, may aid materials design (January 22, 2011) -- Using a highly sophisticated atomic-scale imaging tool on a sea creature's tooth, two researchers have peeled away some of the mystery of organic/inorganic interfaces that are at the heart of tooth and bone structure. They are the first to produce a three-dimensional map of the location and identity of millions of individual atoms in the complex hybrid material that allows the animal to literally chew rock. ... > full story

Genetic code for form of pancreatic cancer cracked (January 22, 2011) -- Scientists have deciphered the genetic code for a type of pancreatic cancer, called neuroendocrine or islet cell tumors. The work shows that patients whose tumors have certain coding "mistakes" live twice as long as those without them. ... > full story

Defense mechanism against bacteria and fungi deciphered (January 22, 2011) -- To defend microbial attacks, the human body naturally produces a group of antibiotics, called defensins. An interdisciplinary team of biochemists and medical scientists has now deciphered the mechanism of action of a defensin, hitherto looked upon as exhibiting only minor activity. Their results might be useful in future drug development for inflammatory and infectious diseases. Nature now presents their findings online ahead of the print publication. ... > full story

Mammograms: Detecting more than breast cancer, may help assess heart risk in kidney disease patients (January 22, 2011) -- Routine mammograms performed for breast cancer screening could serve another purpose as well: detecting calcifications in the blood vessels of patients with advanced kidney disease, according to a new study. ... > full story

Gulf grows between research practice and participant preferences in genetic studies (January 22, 2011) -- Obtaining consent for genetic studies can be an opportunity for researchers to foster respectful engagement with participants, not merely to mitigate risk. Participants are interested in research and feel themselves to have an investment in the studies. A policy forum in the journal Science recommends ways to build trusting relationships between researchers and study participants. ... > full story

Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and diabetes mellitus: Unfolding amyloid secrets (January 22, 2011) -- Scientists have made a fundamental step in the search for therapies for amyloid-related diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and diabetes mellitus. By pinpointing the reaction that kick-starts the formation of amyloid fibers, scientists can now seek to further understand how these fibrils develop and cause disease. ... > full story

Montrealers are feeding fish Prozac; Research shows influence on brain activity while long-term consequences are unclear (January 22, 2011) -- Around one in four Montrealers take some kind of anti-depressant, and according to new research, the drugs are passing into the waterways and affecting fish. The findings are internationally significant as the city's sewage treatment system is similar to that in use in other major cities. ... > full story

Cell binding discovery brings hope to those with skin and heart problems (January 22, 2011) -- New research has revealed the mechanism that binds skin cells tightly together. The discovery may lead to new treatments for painful and debilitating skin diseases and also lethal heart defects. ... > full story

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