Kamis, 27 Januari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Thursday, January 27, 2011

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Mediator of blood pressure regulation in the liver identified; Pressor reflex triggered simply by drinking water (January 27, 2011) -- For 60 years, scientists have puzzled over the possibility of a hepatic osmoreceptor that influences blood pressure regulation. Now, researchers in Germany have discovered a new group of sensory neurons in the mouse liver which mediates the regulation of blood pressure and metabolism. This peripheral control center outside of the brain is triggered simply by drinking water and leads to an elevation of blood pressure in sick and elderly people. ... > full story

DMP1 protein inhibits angiogenesis, could lead to new treatments against cancer and other diseases (January 27, 2011) -- Researchers in Belgium have demonstrated that the DMP1 protein has previously unsuspected anti-angiogenic activities which could be used for the development of new treatments against cancer, but also against diseases in which angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) plays a major role, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or diabetic retinopathy. ... > full story

Highly interactive training helps workers in dangerous jobs avoid deadly mistakes (January 27, 2011) -- Hands-on safety training for workers in highly hazardous jobs is most effective at improving safe work behavior, according to psychologists who analyzed close to 40 years of research. However, less engaging training can be just as effective in preparing workers to avoid accidents when jobs are less dangerous. ... > full story

How pathogenic bacteria hide inside host cells (January 27, 2011) -- A new study into Staphylococcus aureus, the bacterium which is responsible for severe chronic infections worldwide, reveals how the bacteria have developed a strategy of hiding within host cells to escape the immune system as well as many antibacterial treatments. The research demonstrates how 'phenotype switching' enables bacteria to adapt to their environmental conditions, lie dormant inside host cells and become a reservoir for relapsing infections. ... > full story

Molecular network influences development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (January 27, 2011) -- The three most common chromosome changes seen in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) disrupt a molecular network that includes several important genes and strongly influence the outcome of the disease. The study provides important new information about how CLL develops and could improve CLL diagnose, and it identifies new molecular targets for the development of new treatments. ... > full story

Pay-for-performance does not improve patient health, finds UK hypertension study (January 27, 2011) -- A large UK-based study involving nearly 500,000 patients and spanning seven years found that in cases of hypertension, patient health did not improve under a pay-for-performance program. ... > full story

Non-alcoholic energy drinks may pose 'high' health risks, experts argue (January 26, 2011) -- Highly-caffeinated energy drinks -- even those without alcohol -- may pose a significant threat to individuals and public health, say researchers. In a new commentary, they recommend health providers educate patients, voluntary disclosures by manufacturers and new federal labeling requirements. ... > full story

Neuroscientists learn how channels fine-tune neuronal excitability (January 26, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a new mechanism that nerve cells (neurons) use to fine-tune their electrical output. The discovery provides new insights about how the activity of the nervous system is regulated at the cellular level ... > full story

Eyewitnesses are not as reliable as one might believe (January 26, 2011) -- Eyewitnesses play a key role in police investigations. But how likely is it that they remember correctly? Today the police place far too much emphasis on eyewitness accounts, according to experts. ... > full story

New way to prevent infections in dialysis patients (January 26, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered that a drug used to treat dialysis catheter malfunction in kidney dialysis patients may now also help prevent both malfunction as well as infections. ... > full story

Food-borne bacteria causes potentially fatal heart infection (January 26, 2011) -- Researchers have found that particular strains of a food-borne bacteria are able to invade the heart, leading to serious and difficult to treat heart infections. ... > full story

Shockable cardiac arrests are more common in public than home, study finds (January 26, 2011) -- Cardiac arrests that can be treated by electric stimulation, also known as shockable arrests, were found at a higher frequency in public settings than in the home, according to a new study. ... > full story

Eating poorly can make you blue: Trans-fats increase risk of depression, while olive oil helps avoid risk (January 26, 2011) -- Researchers have shown that trans-fats increase the risk of depression, and that olive oil helps avoid this risk. ... > full story

New anti-HIV gene therapy makes T-cells resistant to HIV infection (January 26, 2011) -- An innovative genetic strategy for rendering T-cells resistant to HIV infection without affecting their normal growth and activity is described in a new research paper. ... > full story

Discovery of a biochemical basis for broccoli's cancer-fighting ability (January 26, 2011) -- Scientists are reporting discovery of a potential biochemical basis for the apparent cancer-fighting ability of broccoli and its veggie cousins. They found for the first time that certain substances in the vegetables appear to target and block a defective gene associated with cancer. ... > full story

Infiltrating cancer's recruitment center: How beneficial cells are subverted to support cancer growth (January 26, 2011) -- Scientists have shown for the first time that the fibroblasts can be "recruited" to support inflammation and stimulate tumor growth. The researchers hope their work will lead to better cancer drugs, and to a deeper understanding of the long-suspected link between inflammation and cancer. ... > full story

Sharing child caregiving may increase parental conflict, study finds (January 26, 2011) -- Parents who share caregiving for their preschool children may experience more conflict than those in which the mother is the primary caregiver, according to a new study. Results showed that couples had a stronger, more supportive co-parenting relationship when the father spent more time playing with their child. But when the father participated more in caregiving, like preparing meals for the child or giving baths, the couples were more likely to display less supportive and more undermining co-parenting behavior toward each other. ... > full story

Growth-factor-containing nanoparticles accelerate healing of chronic wounds (January 26, 2011) -- Researchers have developed a novel system for delivery of growth factors to chronic wounds such as pressure sores and diabetic foot ulcers. The team fabricated nanospheres containing keratinocyte growth factor fused with elastin-like peptides. When suspended in a fibrin gel, the nanoparticles improved the healing of deep skin wounds in diabetic mice. ... > full story

Molecular mechanism links stress with predisposition for depression (January 26, 2011) -- A new study provides insight into how stress impacts the brain and may help to explain why some individuals are predisposed to depression when they experience chronic stress. The research reveals complex molecular mechanisms associated with chronic stress and may help to guide new treatment strategies for depression. ... > full story

Centuries of sailors weren't wrong: Looking at the horizon stabilizes posture (January 26, 2011) -- Everybody who has been aboard a ship has heard the advice: if you feel unsteady, look at the horizon. For a new study, researchers measured how much people sway on land and at sea and found there's truth in that advice; people aboard a ship are steadier if they fix their eyes on the horizon. ... > full story

Hot flushes are linked with a significant reduction in breast cancer risk, study finds (January 26, 2011) -- Women who have experienced hot flushes and other symptoms of menopause may have a 50 percent lower risk of developing the most common forms of breast cancer than postmenopausal women who have never had such symptoms, according to a recent study. ... > full story

Use of antidepressant associated with reduction in menopausal hot flashes (January 26, 2011) -- Women who were either in the transition to menopause or postmenopausal experienced a reduction in the frequency and severity of menopausal hot flashes with the use of the antidepressant medication escitalopram, compared to women who received placebo, according to a new study. ... > full story

Soldiers’ brains adapt to perceived threat during mission (January 26, 2011) -- A study of soldiers who took part in the ISAF mission in Afghanistan between 2008 and 2010 has found that their brains adapt when they are continuously exposed to stress. The perceived threat appears to be the major predictor of brain adaptation, rather than the actual events. In other words, if a roadside bomb goes off right in front of you, the degree to which you perceive this as threatening is what counts. This is what determines how the brain and the stress system adapt. Between 2008 and 2010 the researchers studied a group of 36 soldiers. Before and after taking part in the mission, the soldiers’ brain activity was measured and compared with the brain activity of a control group of equal size who stayed at home. Unique to this study is that it is the first to use a control group. This control group, which stayed behind in the barracks in the Netherlands, had received similar combat training. ... > full story

New method attacks bacterial infections on contact lenses (January 26, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a new method to fight bacterial infections associated with contact lenses. The method may also have applications for bacterial infections associated with severe burns and cystic fibrosis. ... > full story

Imaging procedure can identify biomarker associated with Alzheimer's disease (January 26, 2011) -- Preliminary research suggests that use of a type of molecular imaging procedure may have the ability to detect the presence of beta-amyloid in the brains of individuals during life, a biomarker that is identified during autopsy to confirm a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study. ... > full story

Mercury in Bay Area fish a legacy of California mining (January 26, 2011) -- Mercury contamination, a worldwide environmental problem, has been called "public enemy No. 1" in California's San Francisco Bay. ... > full story

Preschool kids know what they like: Salt, sugar and fat (January 26, 2011) -- A child's taste preferences begin at home and most often involve salt, sugar and fat. And, researchers say, young kids learn quickly what brands deliver the goods. ... > full story

New TB vaccine provides stronger, longer-lasting protection (January 26, 2011) -- Researchers have found that a new vaccine strategy tested in mice provides stronger, more long-lasting protection from tuberculosis infection than the vaccine currently used in humans, known as BCG. ... > full story

Chemists document workings of key staph enzyme -- and how to block it (January 26, 2011) -- Researchers have determined the structure and mechanism of dehydrosqualene synthase (CrtM), an enzyme that performs the crucial first step in the formation of cholesterol and a key virulence factor in staph bacteria. The researchers already knew what CrtM looked like and its end product, but they didn't know how the enzyme did its job. Uncovering the mechanism of action will enable scientists to design better inhibitors, and even tailor them to other targets. ... > full story

Genetic diversity found in leukemic propagating cells (January 26, 2011) -- Cancer scientists have found that defective genes and the individual leukemia cells that carry them are organized in a more complex way than previously thought. ... > full story

Parental divorce linked to suicidal thoughts (January 26, 2011) -- Adult children of divorce are more likely to have seriously considered suicide than their peers from intact families, new research suggests. ... > full story

Biologists' favorite worm gets viruses: Finding means C. elegans may aid studies of human infections (January 26, 2011) -- A workhorse of modern biology is sick, and scientists couldn't be happier. Researchers have found that the nematode C. elegans, a millimeter-long worm used extensively for decades to study many aspects of biology, gets naturally occurring viral infections. The discovery means C. elegans is likely to help scientists study the way viruses and their hosts interact. ... > full story

Unfolding pathogenesis in Parkinson’s: Breakthrough suggests damaged proteins travel between cells (January 26, 2011) -- The misfolding of abnormal proteins in brain cells is a key element in Parkinson's disease development. A recent study suggests that the sick proteins slowly move between cells, eventually triggering the destruction of the new host cell. The discovery could potentially lead to new therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases aimed at blocking the spread of protein misfolding throughout the brain. ... > full story

HIV-positive head and neck cancer patients benefit from radiation therapy, study finds (January 26, 2011) -- HIV-positive head and neck cancer patients respond well to radiation therapy treatments and experience similar toxicity rates as non-HIV-positive patients, despite prior reports to the contrary, according to new study. ... > full story

Migraines and headaches present no risk to cognitive function, study finds (January 26, 2011) -- Significant and repetitive headaches are associated with a greater prevalence of small lesions in the brain, which are detectable by MRI imaging. However, they do not increase the risk of cognitive decline. This reassuring conclusion, reached by researchers in France, is based on a survey of a cohort of 780 individuals, over 65 years old. ... > full story

If you knew Susie: The sequence of the orangutan genome (January 26, 2011) -- A large international consortium -- involving more than 30 laboratories from eight different countries -- has published the full sequence of the orangutan genome. ... > full story

First pediatric surgical quality program shows potential to measure children's outcomes (January 26, 2011) -- A first of its kind surgical quality improvement program for children has the potential to identify outcomes of children's surgical care that can be targeted for quality improvement efforts to prevent complications and save lives. ... > full story

Human-made DNA sequences made easy: New method for rapidly producing protein-polymers (January 25, 2011) -- Bioengineers have developed a new method for rapidly producing an almost unlimited variety of human-made DNA sequences. ... > full story

Exercise improve symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (January 25, 2011) -- Physical activity improves symptoms in patients with IBS and is protective against symptom deterioration, according to new research. ... > full story

Safety concerns about experimental cancer approach: Widespread vascular tumors, massive hemorrhage and death reported in mice (January 25, 2011) -- A new study has raised safety concerns about an investigational approach to treating cancer. The strategy takes aim at a key signaling pathway, called Notch, involved in the formation of new blood vessels that feed tumor growth. When researchers targeted the Notch1 signaling pathway in mice, the animals developed vascular tumors, primarily in the liver, which led to massive hemorrhages that caused their death. ... > full story

Cholera vaccination beneficial, post-outbreak (January 25, 2011) -- Researchers newly report evidence that vaccination against cholera can be beneficial even after an outbreak has begun. ... > full story

The language of young love: The ways couples talk can predict relationship success (January 25, 2011) -- We know that people tend to be attracted to, date, and marry other people who resemble themselves in terms of personality, values, and physical appearance. However, these features only skim the surface of what makes a relationship work. The ways that people talk are also important. A new study finds that people who speak in similar styles are more compatible. ... > full story

'Breast on a chip': Researchers create 'engineered organ' model for breast cancer research (January 25, 2011) -- Researchers have reproduced portions of the female breast in a tiny slide-sized model dubbed "breast on-a-chip" that will be used to test nanomedical approaches for the detection and treatment of breast cancer. The model mimics the branching mammary duct system, where most breast cancers begin, and will serve as an "engineered organ" to study the use of nanoparticles to detect and target tumor cells within the ducts. ... > full story

Caffeine energizes cells, boosting virus production for gene therapy applications (January 25, 2011) -- Give caffeine to cells engineered to produce viruses used for gene therapy and the cells can generate three- to eight-times more virus, according to a new paper. ... > full story

Dynamic systems in living cells break the rules (January 25, 2011) -- There is considerable interest in understanding transport and information pathways in living cells. It is crucial for both the transport of, for example, medicine into cells, the regulation of cell life processes and their signaling with their environment. New research shows surprisingly that the transport mechanisms do not follow the expected pattern. ... > full story

People aren't born afraid of spiders and snakes: Fear is quickly learned during infancy (January 25, 2011) -- There's a reason why Hollywood makes movies like Arachnophobia and Snakes on a Plane: Most people are afraid of spiders and snakes. A new article reviews research with infants and toddlers and finds that we aren't born afraid of spiders and snakes, but we can learn these fears very quickly. ... > full story

Vaccines for plague and bacterial pneumonias? (January 25, 2011) -- There is no licensed plague vaccine in the United States. Researchers are now working to develop a vaccine that will protect members of the armed services and public from a "plague bomb." ... > full story

New dishware sanitizers prove more effective at killing harmful bacteria (January 25, 2011) -- Researchers recently tested the merits of two new dishware sanitizers, and found them more effective at removing bacteria from restaurant dishes than traditional sanitizers. The two new sanitizers reflect the industry's recent efforts to develop more effective germ killers that are also environmentally friendly. ... > full story

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