Rabu, 30 Maret 2011

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for Wednesday, March 30, 2011

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Measurements of winter Arctic sea ice shows continuing ice loss, study finds (March 30, 2011) -- The 2011 Arctic sea ice extent maximum that marks the beginning of the melt season appears to be tied for the lowest ever measured by satellites, say scientists. ... > full story

Thyroid hormone controls the eye‘s visual pigments throughout life (March 30, 2011) -- What part does the thyroid gland have in vision? Thyroid hormone is crucially involved in controlling which visual pigment is produced in the cones. Previously, it was assumed that the color sensitivity of the cones is fixed in the adult retina. ... > full story

Study illuminates the 'pain' of social rejection (March 30, 2011) -- Physical pain and intense feelings of social rejection "hurt" in the same way, a new study shows. ... > full story

Annual sonograms are needed to verify correct IUD position, obstetricians say (March 30, 2011) -- A retrospective study of women who became pregnant while using intrauterine devices shows that more than half of the IUDs were malpositioned. ... > full story

Household bleach can decontaminate food prep surfaces in ricin bioterrorist attack (March 30, 2011) -- Help for a bioterrorist attack involving ricin, one of the most likely toxic agents, may be as close at hand as the laundry shelf, according to a new report. It concluded that ordinary household bleach appears to be an effective, low-cost, and widely available way to decontaminate food preparation surfaces in homes, restaurants, and processing plants that are tainted with ricin. ... > full story

Frequency of fat talk associated with increased body dissatisfaction, regardless of waistline (March 30, 2011) -- College women who engage in "fat talk" (women speaking negatively about the size and shape of their bodies) face greater dissatisfaction with their bodies and are more likely to have internalized an ultra-thin body ideal than those who engage in fat talk less frequently, according to a review article. ... > full story

Like products, plants wait for optimal configuration before market success (March 30, 2011) -- Scientists have now amassed the largest evolutionary tree (phylogeny) for plants. They have learned that major groups of plants tinker with their design and performance before rapidly spinning off new species. The finding upends long-held thinking that plants' speciation rates are tied to the first development of a new physical trait or mechanism. ... > full story

Scientists devise targeted therapy strategy for rare form of childhood cancer (March 30, 2011) -- Scientists have caused cells in a rare, lethal form of cancer to begin behaving like normal cells -- one of the longest-standing, and most rarely achieved, goals of cancer research. When the approach was tested in a child with an advanced case of NUT midline carcinoma, for which there are no other effective treatments, it slowed the course of the disease for several months. ... > full story

Heavy metals open path to high temperature nanomagnets (March 30, 2011) -- A chemistry student has discovered a path to making molecular magnets work at exceptionally high temperatures. The solution? Build magnets using just a few atoms of heavy non-iron metals. ... > full story

Bariatric surgery highly cost-effective treatment for type 2 diabetes in the obese, study suggests (March 30, 2011) -- Bariatric surgery is an especially cost-effective therapy for managing Type 2 diabetes in moderately and severely obese patients. ... > full story

Imaging the paintings under the paintings of the Old Masters (March 30, 2011) -- Gaze upon Rembrandt's "The Night Watch," "The Storm on the Sea of Galilee," or one of the great Dutch master's famous self-portraits. Scientists have taken art appreciation a step further and have now developed a technique to see the paintings under the paintings of Rembrandt, Caravaggio, Rubens, and other 17th Century Old Master painters. ... > full story

Poor behavior doesn't always lead to poor academics (March 30, 2011) -- Despite popular belief, a new study finds that students who have poor behavior in the classroom do not always have poor grades. ... > full story

Deciphering hidden code reveals brain activity (March 29, 2011) -- By combining sophisticated mathematical techniques more commonly used by spies instead of scientists with the power and versatility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a neurologist has developed a new approach for studying the inner workings of the brain. A hidden pattern is encoded in the seemingly random order of things presented to a human subject, which the brain reveals when observed with fMRI. ... > full story

Exposure to chemicals in environment associated with onset of early menopause (March 29, 2011) -- A recent study found that higher levels of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) in the body are associated with increased odds of having experienced menopause in women between 42 and 64 years old. Women in this age group with high levels of PFCs also had significantly lower concentrations of estrogen when compared to women who had low levels of PFCs. ... > full story

New cancer drug heads to clinical trials (March 29, 2011) -- A new study showed that the drug AT-406 effectively targets proteins that block normal cell death from occurring. Blocking these proteins caused tumor cells to die, while not harming normal cells. The researchers believe the drug has potential to treat multiple types of cancer. ... > full story

New insight into how 'tidying up' enzymes work (March 29, 2011) -- New research sheds light on how molecules are broken down by the body -- a finding that promises to help pharmaceutical chemists design better drugs. ... > full story

Communicating uncertain climate risks (March 29, 2011) -- Despite much research that demonstrates potential dangers from climate change, public concern has not been increasing. ... > full story

Stepchildren relate to stepparents based on perceived benefits, researchers find (March 29, 2011) -- More than 40 percent of Americans have at least one step relative, according to a recent Pew Center study. Relationships between stepchildren and stepparents can be complicated, especially for children. Experts have found that stepchildren relate with stepparents based on the stepparents' treatment of them and their evaluations, or judgments, of the stepparents' behaviors. ... > full story

Treadmill tests for poison frogs show toxic species are more physically fit (March 29, 2011) -- The most toxic, brightly colored members of the poison frog family may also be the best athletes, says a new study. ... > full story

Mother's obesity may lead to infertility in the next generation (March 29, 2011) -- Levels of the hormone ghrelin are low in obese women and a recent study reports that mice whose mothers had low ghrelin levels were less fertile due to a defect in implantation. ... > full story

Key plant traits yield more sugar for biofuels (March 29, 2011) -- New clues about plant structure are helping researchers narrow down a large collection of poplar tree candidates and identify winners for future use in biofuel production. ... > full story

Ambulatory monitoring reveals many patients have 'white coat' hypertension (March 29, 2011) -- A third of patients thought to have resistant hypertension had "white coat" hypertension during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, a large study reports. In ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the patient's blood pressure is checked at regular intervals under normal living and working conditions. ... > full story

Some ingredients in 'green' products come from petroleum rather than natural sources (March 29, 2011) -- With more and more environmentally conscious consumers choosing "green" products, scientists have now reported that the first reality check has revealed that the ingredients in those product may come from a surprising source -- petroleum, rather than natural plant-based sources. ... > full story

Weight loss surgery can significantly improve migraines, study finds (March 29, 2011) -- Obese migraine sufferers reported post-operative improvements in headache frequency, severity, and disability. Findings suggest weight loss may be an important part of a migraine treatment plan for obese patients. ... > full story

Satellites detect extensive drought impact on Amazon forests (March 29, 2011) -- A new study has revealed widespread reductions in the greenness of the forests in the vast Amazon basin in South America caused by the record-breaking drought of 2010. ... > full story

New 'nanodrug' breaks down barriers to attack breast cancer cells from the inside out (March 29, 2011) -- Unlike other drugs that target cancer cells from the outside with minimal effect, this "transport vehicle" carries multiple drugs that spare healthy cells, accumulate in tumor cells and strike cancer-specific molecular targets inside. ... > full story

Researchers make first perovskite-based superlens for the infrared (March 29, 2011) -- Researchers have fabricated a superlens from perovskite oxides that are ideal for capturing light in the mid-infrared range, opening the door to highly sensitive biomedical detection and imaging. It may also be possible to turn the superlensing effect on/off, opening the door to highly dense data writing and storage. ... > full story

New device uses submarine technology to diagnose stroke quickly (March 29, 2011) -- A medical device developed by retired US Navy sonar experts, using submarine technology, is a new paradigm for the detection, diagnosis and monitoring of stroke, says a team of interventional radiologists. ... > full story

Chemists' biosensor may improve food, water safety and cancer detection (March 29, 2011) -- A new nanotechnology-based biosensor under development may allow early detection of both cancer cells and pathogens, leading to increased food safety and reduced health risks. ... > full story

Women's body image based more on others' opinions than their own weight (March 29, 2011) -- Women's appreciation of their bodies is only indirectly connected to their body mass index (BMI), a common health measure of weight relative to height, according to recent research. The most powerful influence on women's appreciation of their bodies is how they believe important others view them, the study suggests. ... > full story

Wind can keep mountains from growing (March 29, 2011) -- Wind is a much more powerful force in the evolution of mountains than previously thought, according to a new report. The researchers figured out wind's rock-sculpting abilities by studying gigantic wind-formed ridges of rock called yardangs that are found in Central Asia. Bedrock in the area that would have formed mountains instead was sand-blasted into dust. ... > full story

To better detect heart transplant rejections, scientists test for traces of donor's genome (March 29, 2011) -- Heart transplant recipients and their physicians are likely more concerned with the function of the donated organ than with the donor's DNA sequences that tag along in the new, healthy tissue. However, researchers have shown that an increase in the amount of the donor's DNA in the recipient's blood is one of the earliest detectable signs of organ rejection. ... > full story

Next-generation chemical mapping on the nanoscale (March 29, 2011) -- Scientists have pioneered a new chemical mapping method that provides unprecedented insight into materials at the nanoscale. These new maps will guide researchers in deciphering molecular chemistry and interactions that are critical for artificial photosynthesis, biofuels production and light-harvesting applications such as solar cells. ... > full story

Smoking in combination with immunosuppression poses greater risk for transplant-related carcinoma (March 29, 2011) -- Researchers have found that liver transplant recipients who quit smoking have a lower incidence of smoking-related malignancies (SRM) than patients who keep smoking. In fact, SRMs were identified in 13.5 percent of deceased patients and smoking was associated with a higher risk of malignancy in this study. ... > full story

From crankcase to gas tank: New microwave method converts used motor oil into fuel (March 29, 2011) -- That dirty motor oil that comes out of your car or truck engine during oil changes could end up in your fuel tank, according to a new report. It described development of a new process for recycling waste crankcase oil into gasoline-like fuel -- the first, they said, that uses microwaves and has "excellent potential" for going into commercial use. ... > full story

Negative attitudes toward fat bodies going global, study finds (March 29, 2011) -- Stigma against overweight people is becoming a cultural norm around the world, even in places where larger bodies have traditionally been valued. That's according to a new cross-cultural study of attitudes toward obesity. ... > full story

Researchers close in on technology for making renewable petroleum (March 29, 2011) -- Researchers are a key step closer to making renewable petroleum fuels using bacteria, sunlight and carbon dioxide. ... > full story

Potential new medicines show promise for treating colon cancer, asthma (March 29, 2011) -- In what they described as the opening of a new era in the development of potentially life-saving new drugs, scientists have discovered of a way to tone down an overactive gene involved in colon cancer and block a key protein involved in asthma attacks. Those targets long had ranked among hundreds of thousands that many scientists considered to be "undruggable," meaning that efforts to reach them with conventional medicines were doomed to fail. ... > full story

Bones conjure Yellowstone's ecological ghosts (March 29, 2011) -- By taking a closer look at animal bones scattered across the wilderness landscape, a researcher has found a powerful tool for showing how species' populations have changed over decades or even a century. ... > full story

Marijuana use may hurt intellectual skills in multiple sclerosis patients (March 29, 2011) -- Any possible pain relief that marijuana has for people with multiple sclerosis may be outweighed by the drug's apparent negative effect on thinking skills, according to new research. ... > full story

GPS study shows wolves more reliant on a cattle diet (March 29, 2011) -- Cattle ranchers in southwestern Alberta have suspected it for a long time, and now GPS tracking equipment confirms it: wolf packs in the area are making cow meat a substantial part of their diets. ... > full story

Childhood psychological problems have long-term economic and social impact, study finds (March 29, 2011) -- Analyzing information from a group of British residents followed for 50 years, researchers have found that psychological problems experienced during childhood can have a long-lasting impact on an individual's life course, reducing people's earnings and decreasing the chances of establishing long-lasting relationships. ... > full story

Evolution: Not only the fittest survive (March 29, 2011) -- Darwin's notion that only the fittest survive has been called into question by new research. The study shows that biodiversity can evolve and persist even in environments where it was previously thought impossible. The research calls into question the current theoretical understanding of evolution. ... > full story

First identification of nicotine as main culprit in diabetes complications among smokers (March 29, 2011) -- Scientists report the first strong evidence implicating nicotine as the main culprit responsible for persistently elevated blood sugar levels -- and the resulting increased risk of serious health complications -- in people who have diabetes and smoke. The discovery also may have implications for people with diabetes who are using nicotine-replacement therapy for extended periods in an attempt to stop smoking. ... > full story

Speeding up Mother Nature's very own CO<sub>2</sub> mitigation process (March 29, 2011) -- Using seawater and calcium to remove carbon dioxide in a natural gas power plant's flue stream, and then pumping the resulting calcium bicarbonate in the sea, could be beneficial to the oceans' marine life. ... > full story

Avoiding health risks could prevent more than half of all cases of atrial fibrillation (March 29, 2011) -- Reducing cardiovascular risk factors like high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and being overweight could potentially reduce more than half of all cases of atrial fibrillation, according to new research. ... > full story

Tiger numbers increase in India (March 29, 2011) -- The Indian Government has released new tiger population numbers for the first time since 2007, indicating that numbers have increased in the country that has half of the world's remaining wild tigers. ... > full story

Digital versus analog control over cortical inhibition in the brain (March 29, 2011) -- In the cerebral cortex, the balance between excitation and inhibition is thought to be mediated by the primary mode of neuronal communication: "all-or-none" action potentials, or spikes. However, researchers in China have discovered a new strategy by which the cortex can maintain this balance, by showing that the amount of inhibition depends on the membrane potentials in pyramidal cells, which represents an "analog" strategy. ... > full story

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