Senin, 28 Maret 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Monday, March 28, 2011

Welcome to another edition of ScienceDaily's email newsletter. You can change your subscription options or unsubscribe at any time.

Structure of DNA repair complex reveals workings of powerful cell motor (March 28, 2011) -- Over the last years, researchers have steadily built a model of how a powerful DNA repair complex works. Now, a new discovery provides revolutionary insights into the way the molecular motor inside the complex functions -- findings they say may have implications for treatment of disorders ranging from cancer to cystic fibrosis. ... > full story

People at risk of Alzheimer's may now be able to delay the onset of their first symptoms (March 28, 2011) -- For elderly subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, research shows that hope may lie in brain plasticity. ... > full story

Sea ice holds deep secrets (March 28, 2011) -- Future safety in traversing the enormous Arctic Ocean will require greater knowledge about the molecular structure of sea ice. But studying sea ice without disturbing it or having it melt is no simple matter. ... > full story

New drug approved for treating most common type of lupus (March 28, 2011) -- A new drug -- Benlysta (belimumab) -- has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Benlysta, which treats the most common type of lupus, is the first in a new class of pharmaceuticals that prevents the body from attacking its own critical tissues. ... > full story

Can biochar help suppress greenhouse gases? (March 28, 2011) -- Scientists have conducted an experiment over an 86-day spring/summer period to determined the effect of incorporating biochar into the soil on nitrous oxide emissions produced by cattle urine. ... > full story

Red tape for clinical trial consent can be lethal: Experts (March 28, 2011) -- Current rules requiring researchers to obtain consent for patients to take part in clinical trials in emergency situations are causing life-threatening delays to treatment, experts have argued. ... > full story

'Can you hear me now?' How neurons decide how to transmit information (March 28, 2011) -- There are billions of neurons in the brain and at any given time tens of thousands of these neurons might be trying to send signals to one another. Much like a person trying to be heard across a crowded room, neurons must figure out the best way to get their message heard above the din. Researchers have now found two ways that neurons accomplish this, establishing a fundamental mechanism by which neurons communicate. ... > full story

When the body attacks itself (March 28, 2011) -- Those afflicted with psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and kidney inflammation are all victims of their own immune system; their bodies are attacking healthy cells. Medicines targeted at one troublesome enzyme could make life easier for people suffering from these conditions. ... > full story

Shallow-water shrimp tolerates deep-sea conditions (March 28, 2011) -- By studying the tolerance of marine invertebrates to a wide range of temperature and pressure, scientists are beginning to understand how shallow-water species could have colonized the ocean depths. ... > full story

Inadequate diet can lead to anemia in postmenopausal women (March 28, 2011) -- A new study indicates that inadequate nutrition is linked to a greater risk of anemia in postmenopausal women. ... > full story

Ecosystem-wide framework for monitoring coral reef fisheries can be used on global scale (March 28, 2011) -- Scientists have created a framework that increases the effectiveness of critical reef monitoring techniques. The new framework improves the accuracy and efficiency of fish counts and can be used to determine the best long term management strategies -- whether the reefs are in Florida, Hawaii or anywhere around the world. ... > full story

Great Depression did not significantly improve life expectancy in United States, study finds (March 28, 2011) -- A new provides a fresh perspective on the Great Depression of the 1930s. A widely held view is that there were remarkable improvements in life expectancy of over five years. Using data from urban populations, researchers found that it was actually associated with an increase in suicides but reduction in motor-vehicle accidents, a pattern consistent with the impacts of the current recession in Europe and the U.S. ... > full story

Black hole found in binary star system: More than five times greater in mass than our Sun (March 27, 2011) -- The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) has obtained the first spectroscopy data from the X-ray transient binary XTE J1859+226, which confirm the existence of a black hole. Only about 20 binary stellar systems are known to contain a black hole, out of an estimated population of around 5,000 in the Milky Way Galaxy. ... > full story

Stem cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration moves a step closer to reality (March 27, 2011) -- The notion of transplanting adult stem cells to treat or even cure age-related macular degeneration has taken a significant step toward becoming a reality. Researchers have now demonstrated, for the first time, the ability to create retinal cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells that mimic the eye cells that die and cause loss of sight. ... > full story

Faster method to study plant ecology (March 27, 2011) -- Cleaning up pollution, protecting soil from erosion and maintaining species-rich ecosystems are some goals of a computational ecology project. The work sheds light on a new method to speed up research in the ecology of plants. ... > full story

Do all student athletes need heart screenings? (March 27, 2011) -- Parents may be wondering if enough is being done to identify athletes at risk for dying suddenly. In response, some communities have started programs to perform more extensive heart testing, including electrocardiograms. Yet some experts do not support such community programs due to a lack of evidence that they are able to reduce the number of sudden deaths. ... > full story

Biodiversity and sustainable resource use may co-exist in tropical forests (March 27, 2011) -- When local residents are allowed to make rules about managing nearby forests, the forests are more likely to provide greater economic benefits to households and contain more biodiversity, researchers conclude from an analysis of forest practices in tropical developing countries of East Africa and South Asia. ... > full story

Don't shuffle on slippery surfaces (March 27, 2011) -- Biomechanics researchers conclude that moving quickly in a forward, firm-footed stance across a slippery surface is less likely to lead to a fall than if you move slowly. ... > full story

Smaller particles could make solar panels more efficient (March 27, 2011) -- New research could significantly improve the efficiency of solar cells. The size of light-absorbing particles -- quantum dots -- affects the particles' ability to transfer energy to electrons to generate electricity. ... > full story

Asthma drug could help control or treat Alzheimer's disease (March 27, 2011) -- A drug used to treat asthma has been shown to help reduce the formation of amyloid beta, a peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease, and the subsequent build up of amyloid plaques in the brain by more than 50 percent. ... > full story

Wealth of orchid varieties is down to busy bees and helpful fungi, says study (March 27, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered why orchids are one of the most successful groups of flowering plants -- it is all down to their relationships with the bees that pollinate them and the fungi that nourish them. ... > full story

Blood glucose levels that predict 10-year risk of retinopathy identified (March 27, 2011) -- Individuals who have higher blood glucose levels and poorer control of those levels over time appear more likely to develop eye-related complications 10 years later, according to a new article. ... > full story

Remarkable diversity of lichen species found in Florida state park (March 27, 2011) -- Florida's Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park appears to be have more lichen biodiversity in a relatively small space than anywhere else in North America, according to a recent census. Botanists found 432 species in one square kilometer, including 18 never before identified by scientists and nearly 100 previously not known from North America. ... > full story

Micro-RNA's contribute to risk for panic disorder (March 27, 2011) -- Studies in twin pairs suggest that 40% of the risk for panic disorder is heritable, yet the manner in which genes contribute to the risk for panic disorder is far from clear. To date, variations in a growing number of genes have been implicated in the risk for panic disorder, but the magnitude of the impact of each individual gene is relatively small. A new study now implicates one type of molecular switch, microRNAs (miRNAs), in panic disorder. ... > full story

Freshwater content of upper Arctic Ocean increased 20 percent since 1990s, large-scale assessment finds (March 27, 2011) -- The freshwater content of the upper Arctic Ocean has increased by about 20 percent since the 1990s, according to a new large-scale assessment. This corresponds to a rise of approximately 8,400 cubic kilometres and has the same magnitude as the volume of freshwater annually exported on average from this marine region in liquid or frozen form. ... > full story

Eye development error can cause cataracts, glaucoma (March 27, 2011) -- Scientists show that RNA granules -- a key player in messenger RNA processing -- can affect eye development, leading to juvenile cataracts in humans and mice. The research also demonstrates the first connection between RNA granules and glaucoma, as both humans and mice developed glaucoma. ... > full story

NASA's venerable comet hunter Stardust spacecraft wraps up mission (March 27, 2011) -- On March 24, 2011, NASA's Stardust spacecraft finished its last transmission to Earth. The transmission came on the heels of the venerable spacecraft's final rocket burn, which was designed to provide insight into how much fuel remained aboard after its encounter with comet Tempel 1 in February. ... > full story

Trigger found for autoimmune heart attacks: Research may point toward new ways to diagnose and treat heart disease in people with Type 1 diabetes (March 27, 2011) -- People with type 1 diabetes, whose insulin-producing cells have been destroyed by the body's own immune system, are particularly vulnerable to a form of inflammatory heart disease (myocarditis) caused by a different autoimmune reaction. Scientists have revealed the exact target of this other onslaught. ... > full story

New lignin 'lite' switchgrass boosts biofuel yield by more than one-third (March 27, 2011) -- Bioethanol from new lines of native perennial prairie grass could become less costly because of recent plant engineering. ... > full story

Multiplexing in the visual brain (March 27, 2011) -- Imagine sitting in a train at the railway station looking outside: Without analyzing the relative motion of object contours across many different locations at the same time, it is often difficult to decide whether it's your train that starts moving, or the one at the opposite track. How are these diverse information conveyed simultaneously through the network of millions of activated nerve cells in the visual brain? ... > full story

Antarctic icebergs play a previously unknown role in global carbon cycle, climate (March 26, 2011) -- In a finding that has global implications for climate research, scientists have discovered that when icebergs cool and dilute the seas through which they pass for days, they also raise chlorophyll levels in the water that may in turn increase carbon dioxide absorption in the Southern Ocean. ... > full story

Living at high altitude reduces risk of dying from heart disease: Low oxygen may spur genes to create blood vessels (March 26, 2011) -- Researchers have found that people living at higher altitudes have a lower chance of dying from heart disease and live longer. ... > full story

New instrument keeps an 'eye' on nanoparticles (March 26, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a new instrument capable of detecting individual nanoparticles with diameters as small as a few tens of nanometers. ... > full story

Supervised weight training safe for pregnant women, study suggests (March 26, 2011) -- Despite decades of doctors' reluctance to recommend weight training to pregnant women, a new study has found that a supervised, low-to-moderate intensity program is safe and beneficial. ... > full story

Maquipucuna cloud forest in Ecuador yields new species of yeast (March 26, 2011) -- A new species of yeast has been discovered growing on the fruit of an unidentified and innocuous bramble collected from the biodiversity-rich Maquipucuna cloud forest nature reserve, near Quito, in Ecuador. ... > full story

Tourettes brains are structured for greater, not lesser, cognitive motor control (March 26, 2011) -- Contrary to intuition, people who suffer from the motor and vocal tics characteristic of Tourette syndrome actually perform behavioral tests of cognitive motor control more accurately and quickly than their typically developing peers do. According to a new study, that enhanced control arises from structural and functional changes in the brain that likely come about from the need to constantly suppress tics. ... > full story

Algae, bacteria hogged oxygen after ancient mass extinction, slowed marine life recovery (March 26, 2011) -- After the biggest mass extinction in Earth's history -- 250 million years ago -- algae and bacteria in the ocean rebounded so fast that they consumed virtually all the oxygen in the sea, slowing the recovery of the rest of marine animals for several million years. ... > full story

Neuroscientists decode crucial component in brain signal processing (March 26, 2011) -- A team of Neuroscientists from NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, have made a major breakthrough in understanding how signals are processed in the human brain. ... > full story

Bats keep separate households (March 26, 2011) -- The use of different environments by males and females in the parti-colored bat makes population estimation and thereby the conservation of the species more difficult. The use of different resources by males and females exacerbates the estimation of population sizes. However, the monitoring of population sizes, particularly for rare and threatened species, is pivotal to quick and effective conservation action. Scientists have now investigated the ecological niches of male and female parti-colored bats (Vespertilio murinus) and found out that the sexes use entirely different foraging grounds. With their results they can show that a finer grained view of what different demographic subsets of species do is essential for correct estimation of population trends with important implications on action plans for conservation. ... > full story

HIV integration requires use of a host DNA-repair pathway (March 26, 2011) -- The human immunodeficiency virus, the cause of AIDS, makes use of the base excision repair pathway when inserting its DNA into the host-cell genome, according to a new study. The research shows that crippling the repair pathway prevents the virus from completing this critical step in its life cycle. The findings offer potential new targets for novel anti-HIV drugs that may not lead as quickly to viral resistance as current drugs, the researchers say. ... > full story

Inclusive fitness theory defended (March 26, 2011) -- In 1964, biologist William Hamilton introduced Inclusive Fitness Theory to predict and explain phenomena ranging from animal behavior to patterns of gene expression. With its many successes, the theory became a cornerstone for modern biology. In August 2010, researchers challenged the theory in the journal Nature. Now Nature has published sharp rebuttals from scores of scientists. ... > full story

'Simulated' needles just as effective as real acupuncture in treating nausea in cancer patients, study finds (March 26, 2011) -- Simulated acupuncture -- sometimes referred to as placebo -- is just as beneficial as real acupuncture for treating nausea in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, according to a study by researchers in Sweden. Patients, who received only standard care including medications for nausea, felt significant more nausea than patients in both the acupuncture groups. ... > full story

Universal property of music discovered (March 25, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a universal property of scales. Until now it was assumed that the only thing scales throughout the world have in common is the octave. The many hundreds of scales, however, seem to possess a deeper commonality: if their tones are compared in a two- or three-dimensional way by means of a coordinate system, they form convex or star-convex structures. Convex structures are patterns without indentations or holes, such as a circle, square or oval. ... > full story

New colon cancer marker identified (March 25, 2011) -- A research team has identified an enzyme that could be used to diagnose colon cancer earlier. It is possible that this enzyme also could be a key to stopping the cancer. ... > full story

Kudzu vines spreading north from US Southeast with warming climate (March 25, 2011) -- Kudzu, the plant scourge of the US Southeast. The long tendrils of this woody vine, or liana, are on the move north with a warming climate. ... > full story

Promising clue to mechanism behind gene mutation that causes Parkinson's disease (March 25, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a way that mutations in a gene called LRRK2 may cause the most common inherited form of Parkinson's disease. The study, published online this month in the journal Public Library of Science, shows that upon specific modification called phosphorylation, LRRK2 protein binds to a family of proteins called 14-3-3, which has a regulatory function inside cells. ... > full story

BrainGate neural interface system reaches 1,000-day performance milestone (March 25, 2011) -- An investigational implanted system being developed to translate brain signals toward control of assistive devices has allowed a woman with paralysis to accurately control a computer cursor at 2.7 years after implantation, providing a key demonstration that neural activity can be read out and converted into action for an unprecedented length of time. ... > full story

How well do you know your friends? (March 25, 2011) -- How does your best friend feel when people act needy? Or, about people being dishonest? What do they think when others seem uncomfortable in social situations? If you don't know -- your relationship may pay a price. ... > full story

Copyright 1995-2010 © ScienceDaily LLC. All rights reserved. Terms of use.

This message was sent to from:

ScienceDaily | 1 Research Court, Suite 450 | Rockville, MD 20850

Email Marketing by iContact - Try It Free!

Update Profile  |  Forward To a Friend