Kamis, 31 Maret 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Thursday, March 31, 2011

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Sensory wiring for smells varies among individuals (March 31, 2011) -- If, as Shakespeare's Juliet declared, a rose by any other name smells as sweet -- to you and to me and to anyone else who sniffs it -- then one might assume that our odor-sensing nerve cells are all wired in the same way. Alas, they are not, according to a new study. ... > full story

Clinical trial success for Crohn's disease cell therapy (March 31, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a new cell therapy for chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease. Patient's own blood cells are used to produce a type of cell -- Type 1 T regulatory lymphocyte -- that can reduce the extent of the disease. ... > full story

Traumatizing your DNA: Researcher warns that it isn't 'all in the genes' (March 31, 2011) -- After an exhaustive survey of contemporary epigenetics studies, one researcher has concluded that some of the effects of stress, cancer and other chronic diseases may be passed on to our offspring -- and theirs -- through deep and complicated underlying cellular mechanisms that scientists are just beginning to understand. ... > full story

Computerized systems reduce psychiatric drug errors, research suggests (March 31, 2011) -- Coupling an electronic prescription drug ordering system with a computerized method for reporting adverse events can dramatically reduce the number of medication errors in a hospital's psychiatric unit, new research suggests. ... > full story

Lack of motivation, equipment main barriers for exercise for boys (March 31, 2011) -- A lack of equipment and venues -- and a lack of motivation even if those were available -- are the main barriers to physical activity for adolescent boys, according to new research. ... > full story

How to make skinny worms fat and fat worms skinny (March 31, 2011) -- Researchers exploring human metabolism have uncovered a handful of chemical compounds that regulate fat storage in worms, offering a new tool for understanding obesity and finding future treatments for diseases associated with obesity. ... > full story

'Informant' jumping gene offers new method for studying how genes are regulated (March 31, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a new method for studying gene regulation, by employing a jumping gene as an informant. Called GROMIT, it allows scientists to also create mouse models for human diseases caused by chromosomal rearrangements, such as Down syndrome. ... > full story

Test after eye surgery: New halometer tests alterations in night vision (March 31, 2011) -- Researchers have developed a new tool to test night vision after eye surgery. ... > full story

Metastasis: Extracellular matrix tugging creates 'come hither' stimulus for cancer migration (March 31, 2011) -- Ninety percent of cancer deaths resulted from metastasis, the spread of cancer to different areas in the body, yet scientific exploration of the possible mechanical factors that promote metastasis has been limited. One researcher, however, is expanding the scientific understanding of what makes malignant tumors spread, and the answer lies within the dense, fibrous matrix that surrounds cancer cells. ... > full story

Adolescent offspring of women who drank alcohol during first trimester more likely to develop conduct disorder (March 31, 2011) -- Alcohol use during pregnancy is common and is associated with significant threats to the health and development of exposed offspring. Despite warnings from the Surgeon General to limit alcohol use if pregnant or contemplating pregnancy, a recent survey found that nearly one-third of women drank alcohol at some time during their pregnancy, with one-fourth of the women surveyed having drunk during the first trimester. ... > full story

No scalpel: Minimally invasive breakthrough for men’s enlarged prostates improves symptoms (March 30, 2011) -- A new interventional radiology treatment that blocks blood supply to men's enlarged prostate glands shows comparable clinical results to transurethral resection of the prostate (or TURP), considered the gold standard (or most common) treatment. However, this minimally invasive treatment -- prostatic artery embolization -- has none of the risks associated with TURP, such as sexual dysfunction, urinary incontinence, blood loss and retrograde ejaculation, say researchers. ... > full story

Research into poison curare may lead to medication against tobacco addiction (March 30, 2011) -- For the first time, three-dimensional images of protein being paralyzed by the poison curare have been made. Curare has a paralyzing effect and the poison’s active chemical component is used in lung surgery. To date, however, scientists did not know how exactly it works. 3D images have now opened new perspectives for the development of medications against sleeping disorders, tobacco addiction and muscle diseases. ... > full story

Allowing people with HIV to be organ donors could save lives of HIV-positive patients with kidney or liver failure (March 30, 2011) -- If the U.S. Congress reversed its ban on allowing people with HIV to be organ donors after their death, roughly 500 HIV-positive patients with kidney or liver failure each year could get transplants within months, rather than the years they currently wait on the list, new research suggests. ... > full story

Educational development stunted by teenage fatherhood (March 30, 2011) -- Public interest in the issue of teenage childbearing has recently increased, largely due to increases in both the teen pregnancy rate and the teen birth rate. A new study examines the negative educational and economic outcomes of teenage fatherhood, a topic far less researched than teenage motherhood. ... > full story

Keeping cancer dormant: Researchers target tumor metabolism by blocking energy production required for malignant cancer growth (March 30, 2011) -- The growth and spread of breast cancer tumors may be delayed with a promising treatment that combines innovative strategies: blocking the enzyme needed to "energize" cancer cells and infusing a potent drug directly into the tumor, with minimum exposure to healthy tissues, according to researchers. ... > full story

Antioxidant formula prior to radiation exposure may prevent DNA injury, trial suggests (March 30, 2011) -- A unique formulation of antioxidants taken orally before imaging with ionizing radiation minimizes cell damage, say researchers. In what the researchers say is the first clinical trial of its kind, as much as a 50 percent reduction in DNA injury was observed after administering the formula prior to CT scans. ... > full story

Mothers abused during childhood at risk for having low birth weight babies (March 30, 2011) -- Mothers who were maltreated as children have increased risk for giving birth to low birth weight babies. The findings are among the first to show that maternal maltreatment can affect the health of offspring. ... > full story

Kidney cancer advance: Genetic pathways could be used to starve cancer cells selectively (March 30, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered genetic pathways to starve selectively kidney cancer cells. Two separate studies indicate that both rare and common cases of kidney cancer may be susceptible to a new class of drugs that inhibits cancer cells from generating the energy needed to survive. ... > full story

54 beneficial compounds discovered in pure maple syrup (March 30, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered 34 new beneficial compounds in pure maple syrup and confirmed that 20 compounds discovered last year in preliminary research play a key role in human health. ... > full story

Links between asthma, smoking and nicotine dependence explored in new study (March 30, 2011) -- New research suggests that being diagnosed with asthma is significantly associated with a greater risk for a lifetime history of daily smoking and nicotine dependence. ... > full story

Singing lowers patient's blood pressure prior to surgery, case study reports (March 30, 2011) -- Doctors report that singing reduced the blood pressure of a 76-year-old woman who had experienced severe preoperative hypertension prior to total knee replacement surgery for osteoarthritis. While the patient was unresponsive to aggressive pharmacologic interventions, the woman's blood pressure dropped dramatically when she sang several religious songs. ... > full story

Diabetes veterans may show ways to prevent complications (March 30, 2011) -- Over time, diabetes can wreak havoc on the body's eyes, cardiovascular system, kidneys and nerves. A major study however, has found that some people who have survived diabetes for many decades exhibit remarkably few complications -- a discovery that points toward the presence of protective factors that guard against the disease's effects. ... > full story

Mothers' hard work pays off with big brains for their babies (March 30, 2011) -- Brain growth in babies is linked to the amount of time and energy mothers "invest," according to new research. The study of 128 mammal species, including humans, shows that brain growth in babies is determined by the duration of pregnancy and how long they suckle. The research concludes that the longer the pregnancy and breastfeeding period in mammals, the bigger the baby's brain grows. ... > full story

Cause of fatal inflammation of the heart muscle identified (March 30, 2011) -- Scientists have found out that inflammations of the heart muscle are caused by attacks of a specific type of immune cells. These immune cells attack the body's own tissue because during their maturation they did not have the chance to develop tolerance against a protein that is only found in the heart muscle. ... > full story

Physicists detect low-level radioactivity from Japan arriving in Seattle (March 30, 2011) -- Physicists are detecting radioactivity arriving in Seattle from Japanese nuclear reactors damaged in a tsunami following a mammoth earthquake, but the levels are far below what would pose a threat to human health. ... > full story

Updating the Mary Poppins solution with a better bitter blocker (March 30, 2011) -- With millions of adults and children avoiding nutritious foods because of the bitter taste, and gagging or vomiting when forced to take bitter liquid medicines, scientists have now reported an advance toward a high-tech version of Mary Poppins' solution. It's not a spoonful of sugar to help the medicine go down, but a new and improved "bitterness blocker." ... > full story

Antibiotics wrapped in nanofibers turn resistant disease-producing bacteria into ghosts (March 30, 2011) -- Encapsulating antibiotics inside nanofibers, like a mummy inside a sarcophagus, gives them the amazing ability to destroy drug-resistant bacteria so completely that scientists described the remains as mere "ghosts," according to a new report. ... > full story

Safer, more effective skin-whitening creams from ancient Chinese herbal medicine (March 30, 2011) -- Scientists have reported the discovery of the active ingredients in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for skin whitening, changing skin color to a lighter shade. The ingredients are poised for clinical trials as a safer, more effective alternative to skin whitening creams and lotions that millions of women and some men use in Asia and elsewhere, they said. ... > full story

New media and eating habits: Computer has replaced the kitchen table as focal point of meals for college students (March 30, 2011) -- A new study has analyzed how new-media technology, including the Internet and smartphones, are changing college students' eating habits and their relationship to food. Findings indicate that individuals are more likely to have meals while sitting at the computer than at the kitchen table, and that they use social media as the main avenue to obtain recipe and nutritional information. ... > full story

Catching cancer with carbon nanotubes: New device to test blood can spot cancer cells, HIV on the fly (March 30, 2011) -- A bioengineer and an aeronautical engineer have together created a new device that can detect single cancer cells in a blood sample, potentially allowing doctors to quickly determine whether cancer has spread from its original site. ... > full story

Obese patients have double the risk of airway problems during an anesthetic, study shows (March 30, 2011) -- A major UK study on complications of anesthesia has shown that obese patients are twice as likely to develop serious airway problems during a general anesthetic than non-obese patients. ... > full story

America's most distressed areas threatened by emerging infections of poverty (March 30, 2011) -- Neglected infections of poverty are the latest threat plaguing the poorest people living in the Gulf Coast states and in Washington, D.C., according to experts. ... > full story

Thyroid hormone controls the eye‘s visual pigments throughout life (March 30, 2011) -- What part does the thyroid gland have in vision? Thyroid hormone is crucially involved in controlling which visual pigment is produced in the cones. Previously, it was assumed that the color sensitivity of the cones is fixed in the adult retina. ... > full story

Study illuminates the 'pain' of social rejection (March 30, 2011) -- Physical pain and intense feelings of social rejection "hurt" in the same way, a new study shows. ... > full story

Annual sonograms are needed to verify correct IUD position, obstetricians say (March 30, 2011) -- A retrospective study of women who became pregnant while using intrauterine devices shows that more than half of the IUDs were malpositioned. ... > full story

Household bleach can decontaminate food prep surfaces in ricin bioterrorist attack (March 30, 2011) -- Help for a bioterrorist attack involving ricin, one of the most likely toxic agents, may be as close at hand as the laundry shelf, according to a new report. It concluded that ordinary household bleach appears to be an effective, low-cost, and widely available way to decontaminate food preparation surfaces in homes, restaurants, and processing plants that are tainted with ricin. ... > full story

Frequency of fat talk associated with increased body dissatisfaction, regardless of waistline (March 30, 2011) -- College women who engage in "fat talk" (women speaking negatively about the size and shape of their bodies) face greater dissatisfaction with their bodies and are more likely to have internalized an ultra-thin body ideal than those who engage in fat talk less frequently, according to a review article. ... > full story

Scientists devise targeted therapy strategy for rare form of childhood cancer (March 30, 2011) -- Scientists have caused cells in a rare, lethal form of cancer to begin behaving like normal cells -- one of the longest-standing, and most rarely achieved, goals of cancer research. When the approach was tested in a child with an advanced case of NUT midline carcinoma, for which there are no other effective treatments, it slowed the course of the disease for several months. ... > full story

Bariatric surgery highly cost-effective treatment for type 2 diabetes in the obese, study suggests (March 30, 2011) -- Bariatric surgery is an especially cost-effective therapy for managing Type 2 diabetes in moderately and severely obese patients. ... > full story

Poor behavior doesn't always lead to poor academics (March 30, 2011) -- Despite popular belief, a new study finds that students who have poor behavior in the classroom do not always have poor grades. ... > full story

Deciphering hidden code reveals brain activity (March 29, 2011) -- By combining sophisticated mathematical techniques more commonly used by spies instead of scientists with the power and versatility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a neurologist has developed a new approach for studying the inner workings of the brain. A hidden pattern is encoded in the seemingly random order of things presented to a human subject, which the brain reveals when observed with fMRI. ... > full story

Exposure to chemicals in environment associated with onset of early menopause (March 29, 2011) -- A recent study found that higher levels of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) in the body are associated with increased odds of having experienced menopause in women between 42 and 64 years old. Women in this age group with high levels of PFCs also had significantly lower concentrations of estrogen when compared to women who had low levels of PFCs. ... > full story

New cancer drug heads to clinical trials (March 29, 2011) -- A new study showed that the drug AT-406 effectively targets proteins that block normal cell death from occurring. Blocking these proteins caused tumor cells to die, while not harming normal cells. The researchers believe the drug has potential to treat multiple types of cancer. ... > full story

New insight into how 'tidying up' enzymes work (March 29, 2011) -- New research sheds light on how molecules are broken down by the body -- a finding that promises to help pharmaceutical chemists design better drugs. ... > full story

Stepchildren relate to stepparents based on perceived benefits, researchers find (March 29, 2011) -- More than 40 percent of Americans have at least one step relative, according to a recent Pew Center study. Relationships between stepchildren and stepparents can be complicated, especially for children. Experts have found that stepchildren relate with stepparents based on the stepparents' treatment of them and their evaluations, or judgments, of the stepparents' behaviors. ... > full story

Mother's obesity may lead to infertility in the next generation (March 29, 2011) -- Levels of the hormone ghrelin are low in obese women and a recent study reports that mice whose mothers had low ghrelin levels were less fertile due to a defect in implantation. ... > full story

Ambulatory monitoring reveals many patients have 'white coat' hypertension (March 29, 2011) -- A third of patients thought to have resistant hypertension had "white coat" hypertension during 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, a large study reports. In ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the patient's blood pressure is checked at regular intervals under normal living and working conditions. ... > full story

Weight loss surgery can significantly improve migraines, study finds (March 29, 2011) -- Obese migraine sufferers reported post-operative improvements in headache frequency, severity, and disability. Findings suggest weight loss may be an important part of a migraine treatment plan for obese patients. ... > full story

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