Senin, 28 Maret 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Monday, March 28, 2011

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Structure of DNA repair complex reveals workings of powerful cell motor (March 28, 2011) -- Over the last years, researchers have steadily built a model of how a powerful DNA repair complex works. Now, a new discovery provides revolutionary insights into the way the molecular motor inside the complex functions -- findings they say may have implications for treatment of disorders ranging from cancer to cystic fibrosis. ... > full story

People at risk of Alzheimer's may now be able to delay the onset of their first symptoms (March 28, 2011) -- For elderly subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, research shows that hope may lie in brain plasticity. ... > full story

New drug approved for treating most common type of lupus (March 28, 2011) -- A new drug -- Benlysta (belimumab) -- has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Benlysta, which treats the most common type of lupus, is the first in a new class of pharmaceuticals that prevents the body from attacking its own critical tissues. ... > full story

Red tape for clinical trial consent can be lethal: Experts (March 28, 2011) -- Current rules requiring researchers to obtain consent for patients to take part in clinical trials in emergency situations are causing life-threatening delays to treatment, experts have argued. ... > full story

'Can you hear me now?' How neurons decide how to transmit information (March 28, 2011) -- There are billions of neurons in the brain and at any given time tens of thousands of these neurons might be trying to send signals to one another. Much like a person trying to be heard across a crowded room, neurons must figure out the best way to get their message heard above the din. Researchers have now found two ways that neurons accomplish this, establishing a fundamental mechanism by which neurons communicate. ... > full story

When the body attacks itself (March 28, 2011) -- Those afflicted with psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and kidney inflammation are all victims of their own immune system; their bodies are attacking healthy cells. Medicines targeted at one troublesome enzyme could make life easier for people suffering from these conditions. ... > full story

Inadequate diet can lead to anemia in postmenopausal women (March 28, 2011) -- A new study indicates that inadequate nutrition is linked to a greater risk of anemia in postmenopausal women. ... > full story

Great Depression did not significantly improve life expectancy in United States, study finds (March 28, 2011) -- A new provides a fresh perspective on the Great Depression of the 1930s. A widely held view is that there were remarkable improvements in life expectancy of over five years. Using data from urban populations, researchers found that it was actually associated with an increase in suicides but reduction in motor-vehicle accidents, a pattern consistent with the impacts of the current recession in Europe and the U.S. ... > full story

Stem cell therapy for age-related macular degeneration moves a step closer to reality (March 27, 2011) -- The notion of transplanting adult stem cells to treat or even cure age-related macular degeneration has taken a significant step toward becoming a reality. Researchers have now demonstrated, for the first time, the ability to create retinal cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells that mimic the eye cells that die and cause loss of sight. ... > full story

Do all student athletes need heart screenings? (March 27, 2011) -- Parents may be wondering if enough is being done to identify athletes at risk for dying suddenly. In response, some communities have started programs to perform more extensive heart testing, including electrocardiograms. Yet some experts do not support such community programs due to a lack of evidence that they are able to reduce the number of sudden deaths. ... > full story

Don't shuffle on slippery surfaces (March 27, 2011) -- Biomechanics researchers conclude that moving quickly in a forward, firm-footed stance across a slippery surface is less likely to lead to a fall than if you move slowly. ... > full story

Asthma drug could help control or treat Alzheimer's disease (March 27, 2011) -- A drug used to treat asthma has been shown to help reduce the formation of amyloid beta, a peptide that is implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease, and the subsequent build up of amyloid plaques in the brain by more than 50 percent. ... > full story

Blood glucose levels that predict 10-year risk of retinopathy identified (March 27, 2011) -- Individuals who have higher blood glucose levels and poorer control of those levels over time appear more likely to develop eye-related complications 10 years later, according to a new article. ... > full story

Micro-RNA's contribute to risk for panic disorder (March 27, 2011) -- Studies in twin pairs suggest that 40% of the risk for panic disorder is heritable, yet the manner in which genes contribute to the risk for panic disorder is far from clear. To date, variations in a growing number of genes have been implicated in the risk for panic disorder, but the magnitude of the impact of each individual gene is relatively small. A new study now implicates one type of molecular switch, microRNAs (miRNAs), in panic disorder. ... > full story

Eye development error can cause cataracts, glaucoma (March 27, 2011) -- Scientists show that RNA granules -- a key player in messenger RNA processing -- can affect eye development, leading to juvenile cataracts in humans and mice. The research also demonstrates the first connection between RNA granules and glaucoma, as both humans and mice developed glaucoma. ... > full story

Trigger found for autoimmune heart attacks: Research may point toward new ways to diagnose and treat heart disease in people with Type 1 diabetes (March 27, 2011) -- People with type 1 diabetes, whose insulin-producing cells have been destroyed by the body's own immune system, are particularly vulnerable to a form of inflammatory heart disease (myocarditis) caused by a different autoimmune reaction. Scientists have revealed the exact target of this other onslaught. ... > full story

Multiplexing in the visual brain (March 27, 2011) -- Imagine sitting in a train at the railway station looking outside: Without analyzing the relative motion of object contours across many different locations at the same time, it is often difficult to decide whether it's your train that starts moving, or the one at the opposite track. How are these diverse information conveyed simultaneously through the network of millions of activated nerve cells in the visual brain? ... > full story

Living at high altitude reduces risk of dying from heart disease: Low oxygen may spur genes to create blood vessels (March 26, 2011) -- Researchers have found that people living at higher altitudes have a lower chance of dying from heart disease and live longer. ... > full story

Supervised weight training safe for pregnant women, study suggests (March 26, 2011) -- Despite decades of doctors' reluctance to recommend weight training to pregnant women, a new study has found that a supervised, low-to-moderate intensity program is safe and beneficial. ... > full story

Tourettes brains are structured for greater, not lesser, cognitive motor control (March 26, 2011) -- Contrary to intuition, people who suffer from the motor and vocal tics characteristic of Tourette syndrome actually perform behavioral tests of cognitive motor control more accurately and quickly than their typically developing peers do. According to a new study, that enhanced control arises from structural and functional changes in the brain that likely come about from the need to constantly suppress tics. ... > full story

Neuroscientists decode crucial component in brain signal processing (March 26, 2011) -- A team of Neuroscientists from NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, have made a major breakthrough in understanding how signals are processed in the human brain. ... > full story

HIV integration requires use of a host DNA-repair pathway (March 26, 2011) -- The human immunodeficiency virus, the cause of AIDS, makes use of the base excision repair pathway when inserting its DNA into the host-cell genome, according to a new study. The research shows that crippling the repair pathway prevents the virus from completing this critical step in its life cycle. The findings offer potential new targets for novel anti-HIV drugs that may not lead as quickly to viral resistance as current drugs, the researchers say. ... > full story

'Simulated' needles just as effective as real acupuncture in treating nausea in cancer patients, study finds (March 26, 2011) -- Simulated acupuncture -- sometimes referred to as placebo -- is just as beneficial as real acupuncture for treating nausea in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, according to a study by researchers in Sweden. Patients, who received only standard care including medications for nausea, felt significant more nausea than patients in both the acupuncture groups. ... > full story

Universal property of music discovered (March 25, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a universal property of scales. Until now it was assumed that the only thing scales throughout the world have in common is the octave. The many hundreds of scales, however, seem to possess a deeper commonality: if their tones are compared in a two- or three-dimensional way by means of a coordinate system, they form convex or star-convex structures. Convex structures are patterns without indentations or holes, such as a circle, square or oval. ... > full story

New colon cancer marker identified (March 25, 2011) -- A research team has identified an enzyme that could be used to diagnose colon cancer earlier. It is possible that this enzyme also could be a key to stopping the cancer. ... > full story

Promising clue to mechanism behind gene mutation that causes Parkinson's disease (March 25, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a way that mutations in a gene called LRRK2 may cause the most common inherited form of Parkinson's disease. The study, published online this month in the journal Public Library of Science, shows that upon specific modification called phosphorylation, LRRK2 protein binds to a family of proteins called 14-3-3, which has a regulatory function inside cells. ... > full story

BrainGate neural interface system reaches 1,000-day performance milestone (March 25, 2011) -- An investigational implanted system being developed to translate brain signals toward control of assistive devices has allowed a woman with paralysis to accurately control a computer cursor at 2.7 years after implantation, providing a key demonstration that neural activity can be read out and converted into action for an unprecedented length of time. ... > full story

How well do you know your friends? (March 25, 2011) -- How does your best friend feel when people act needy? Or, about people being dishonest? What do they think when others seem uncomfortable in social situations? If you don't know -- your relationship may pay a price. ... > full story

A safer, more effective morphine may soon be possible (March 25, 2011) -- An orphan drug originally used for HIV treatment has been found to short-circuit the process that results in additional sensitivity and pain from opioid use. ... > full story

Research may lead to new treatments for Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders (March 25, 2011) -- Scientists are conducting research that may someday lead to new treatments for repair of the central nervous system. The group has identified and analyzed unique adult animal stem cells that can turn into neurons. The neurons they found appear to have many of the qualities desired for cells being used in development of therapies for slowly progressing, degenerative conditions like Parkinson's disease and for damage due to stroke or spinal cord injury. ... > full story

Higher prevalence of psychiatric symptoms found in children with epilepsy (March 25, 2011) -- A newly published report reveals that children with epilepsy are more likely to have psychiatric symptoms, with gender a determining factor in their development. Findings showed that girls had more emotional problems, while boys had more hyperactivity/inattention problems and issues regarding peer relationships. ... > full story

Potential new non-insulin treatment for type 1 diabetes found (March 25, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a hormone pathway that potentially could lead to new ways of treating type 1 diabetes independent of insulin, long thought to be the sole regulator of carbohydrates in the liver. ... > full story

Cruise ship norovirus outbreak highlights how infections spread (March 25, 2011) -- Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the United States and is estimated to cause nearly 21 million cases annually. The results of an investigation of a 2009 outbreak on a cruise ship shed light on how the infections can spread and the steps both passengers and crew can take to prevent them. ... > full story

In vivo systems biology: Using computer models, systems biologists can predict complicated behavior of cells in living animals (March 25, 2011) -- Researchers report that they have created a new computational model that describes how intestinal cells in mice respond to a natural chemical called tumor necrosis factor (TNF). ... > full story

Pulling an all-nighter can bring on euphoria and risky behavior (March 25, 2011) -- A sleepless night can make us cranky and moody. But a lesser known side effect of sleep deprivation is short-term euphoria, which can potentially lead to poor judgment and addictive behavior, according to new research. ... > full story

MRSA infection shown to be seasonal (March 25, 2011) -- A new study has found a significant increase in the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the summer and autumn months. The increase was more pronounced in the pediatric population than in adults. ... > full story

Wild birds may play a role in the spread of bird flu, new research suggests (March 25, 2011) -- Wild migratory birds may indeed play a role in the spread of bird flu, also known as highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. ... > full story

Eskimo study suggests high consumption of omega-3s in fish-rich diet reduces obesity-related disease risk (March 25, 2011) -- A study of Yup'ik Eskimos in Alaska, who on average consume 20 times more omega-3 fats from fish than people in the lower 48 states, suggests that a high intake of these fats helps prevent obesity-related chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. ... > full story

Religious young adults become obese by middle age: Cause may be unhealthy food at religious activities (March 25, 2011) -- Could it be the potato salad? Young adults who frequently attend religious activities are 50 percent more likely to become obese by middle age as young adults with no religious involvement, according to new research. This is the first longitudinal study to examine the development of obesity in people with various degrees of religious involvement. The cause may be unhealthy food served at religious activities. ... > full story

Not so sweet: Increased added sugars intake parallels trends in weight gain (March 25, 2011) -- An upward trend in added sugars intake corresponded to an upward trend in body weight, in a 27-year study of adults in Minnesota, a new study has found. Women in the study consumed less added sugars than men. Younger adults consumed more added sugars than older adults. ... > full story

Unexpected action of bisphenol A on the inner ear of certain vertebrates (March 25, 2011) -- Bisphenol A, whose impact on reproduction and development is the subject of numerous studies, induces anomalies in the inner ear of embryos of certain vertebrates. This new, completely unsuspected effect has been demonstrated on zebrafish and Xenopus, a type of frog. These results illustrate, for the first time, the sensitivity of the inner ear in vertebrates to bisphenol A. The study demonstrates that the effects of this chemical compound on the embryonic development of animals, including mammals, now needs to be explored in greater depth. ... > full story

Noninvasive brain stimulation may improve swallowing after stroke (March 25, 2011) -- Noninvasive electrical stimulation to the brain may improve swallowing ability among stroke survivors, which may help avoid life-threatening complications, new research suggests. ... > full story

Gambling problems are more common than drinking problems, according to first-of-its-kind study (March 25, 2011) -- After age 21, problem gambling is considerably more common among US adults than alcohol dependence, even though alcohol dependence has received much more attention, according to researchers. ... > full story

Acupuncture for pain no better than placebo -- and not without harm, study finds (March 25, 2011) -- Although acupuncture is commonly used for pain control, doubts about its effectiveness and safety remain. Researchers in the UK and Korea critically evaluated systematic reviews of acupuncture as a treatment of pain in order to explore this question. The scientists conclude that numerous systematic reviews have generated little truly convincing evidence that acupuncture is effective in reducing pain, and serious adverse effects continue to be reported. ... > full story

Mini-stroke doubles risk of heart attack (March 25, 2011) -- Patients who have had temporary stroke symptoms known as a transient-ischemic attack (TIA) have twice the risk of heart attack as the general population, a new study has found. TIA patients who had a subsequent heart attack were three times more likely to die during the 20-year study than those who did not have a heart attack. These findings signify the importance of screening TIA patients for signs of heart disease, researchers say. ... > full story

Crucial hour to prevent fatal bleeding (March 25, 2011) -- An hour can make the difference between life and death when using tranexamic acid to treat injured patients with severe bleeding, a new study suggests. ... > full story

Losing a parent can be fatal (March 25, 2011) -- The death of parents entails an increase in their children’s risk of dying, according to researchers in Sweden and Finland. Those especially affected are younger children, and primarily if they lose their mother. ... > full story

Statins make radiation more effective at curing prostate cancer, study suggests (March 25, 2011) -- Men with high-risk prostate cancer who take statin drugs commonly used to lower cholesterol while receiving radiation therapy are less likely to have their cancer return than patients who do not take these medications, according to a new study. ... > full story

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