Kamis, 24 Maret 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Thursday, March 24, 2011

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Self-strengthening nanocomposite created (March 24, 2011) -- Researchers have created a synthetic material that gets stronger from repeated stress much like the body strengthens bones and muscles after repeated workouts. ... > full story

Even mild stress is linked to long-term disability, study finds (March 24, 2011) -- Even relatively mild stress can lead to long term disability and an inability to work, reveals a large population-based study. ... > full story

Researchers collect 'signals intelligence' on insect pests (March 24, 2011) -- Using commercially available parts, scientists have developed a new automated system for detecting insects based on the peculiar sounds the insects make while moving. ... > full story

New computer-based method to detect epileptic seizures (March 24, 2011) -- Researchers have pioneered a computer-based method to detect epileptic seizures as they occur -- a new technique that may open a window on the brain's electrical activity. ... > full story

Rapid etching X-rayed: Physicists unveil processes during fast chemical dissolution (March 24, 2011) -- Researchers in Europe have achieved a breakthrough in the study of chemical reactions during etching and coating of materials. The scientists have uncovered for the first time just what happens in manufacturing processes, used for the formation of metal contacts thinner than a human hair in modern consumer electronics, such as flat-screen television. ... > full story

Long-term methadone treatment can affect the brain (March 24, 2011) -- Methadone has been used to treat heroin addicts for nearly 50 years. Yet we have surprisingly incomplete knowledge about possible harmful effects from prolonged use. New research shows that methadone affects the brain and impairs the attention of experimental animals. ... > full story

Scientists find a key to maintaining our DNA: Provides new clues in quest to slow aging (March 24, 2011) -- Maintaining the integrity of our DNA is a critical, yet complex part of the aging process. Scientists have discovered how DNA maintenance is regulated, opening the door to interventions that may enhance the body's natural preservation of genetic information. The findings may help researchers delay the onset of aging and disease by curbing the loss or damage of our genetic makeup, which makes us more susceptible to cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's. ... > full story

First look at the full multiple myeloma genome reveals new insights, discoveries (March 24, 2011) -- Scientists have unveiled the most comprehensive picture to date of the full genetic blueprint of multiple myeloma, a form of blood cancer. ... > full story

Larger female hyenas produce more offspring (March 24, 2011) -- When it comes to producing more offspring, larger female hyenas outdo their smaller counterparts. A new study revealed this as well as defined a new way to measure spotted hyenas' size. ... > full story

Researchers find cardiac pacing helps epilepsy patients with ictal asystole (March 24, 2011) -- Researchers have found that cardiac pacing may help epilepsy patients with seizure-related falls due to ictal asystole, an unusual condition in which the heart stops beating during an epileptic seizure. ... > full story

Developing strategies in a desert watershed that sustain regional water supplies (March 24, 2011) -- Agricultural scientists are helping meet the water demands of a riparian desert region that is home to a national conservation area and a thriving military base. ... > full story

Psychologists find the meaning of aggression: 'Monty Python' scene helps research (March 24, 2011) -- Bottling up emotions can make people more aggressive, according to new research. The psychologists used a pair of classic movie scenes in their research. They found that subjects who were asked to suppress their emotions and show no reaction to a notoriously disgusting scene in the 1983 film "The Meaning of Life" and another in the 1996 film "Trainspotting" were more aggressive afterwards than subjects who were allowed to show their revulsion. ... > full story

Drug prevents Type 2 diabetes in majority of high-risk individuals (March 23, 2011) -- An oral pill already in wide use prevented Type 2 diabetes in 72 percent of individuals at high risk for the disease, a multicenter study has found. ... > full story

Lung cancer study finds mentholated cigarettes no more harmful than regular cigarettes (March 23, 2011) -- Smokers of mentholated cigarettes are no more likely to develop lung cancer than other smokers, according to a new, very large, prospective study of black and white smokers. In fact, contrary to a popular hypothesis, menthol smokers in this study had a somewhat lower risk of developing and dying from lung cancer than non-menthol smokers. ... > full story

Study finds no association between mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease (March 23, 2011) -- In a new, large-scale study, researchers found no evidence that higher levels of mercury exposure were associated with higher risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, or total cardiovascular disease in two separate studies of US adults. ... > full story

New method for preparation of high-energy carbon-carbon double bonds (March 23, 2011) -- Researchers report they've developed a new catalytic chemical method for the synthesis of a large and important class of carbon-carbon double bonds. ... > full story

Obese and overweight women, children underestimate true weight, study finds (March 23, 2011) -- Overweight and obese women and children underestimate their body weight, new research finds. Almost half of the mothers with overweight and obese children think that their children's weight is normal. Obese images appear to have become acceptable norms in some families; thereby, increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. ... > full story

Cassini finds Saturn sends mixed signals (March 23, 2011) -- Like a petulant adolescent, Saturn is sending out mixed signals. Recent data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft show that the variation in radio waves controlled by the planet's rotation is different in the northern and southern hemispheres. Moreover, the northern and southern rotational variations also appear to change with the Saturnian seasons, and the hemispheres have actually swapped rates. ... > full story

Zebrafish model of human melanoma reveals new cancer gene (March 23, 2011) -- Looking at the dark stripes on the tiny zebrafish you might not expect that they hold a potential clue for discovering a treatment for melanoma. Yet melanocytes, the same cells that are are responsible for the pigmentation of zebrafish stripes and for human skin color, are also where melanoma originates. Researchers have now used zebrafish to identify a new gene responsible for promoting melanoma. ... > full story

Bird embryo provides unique insights into development related to cancer and wound healing (March 23, 2011) -- Avian embryos could join the list of model organisms used to study a specific type of cell migration called epiboly, a developmental process involving mass movement of cells as a sheet that is linked with medical conditions that include wound healing and cancer. ... > full story

Time lived with obesity linked with mortality (March 23, 2011) -- Researchers have found the number of years individuals live with obesity is directly associated with the risk of mortality. ... > full story

Anaerobic digestion on farms could turn agriculture green (March 23, 2011) -- New research has shown that small scale digesters on farms could be profitable for farmers, good for the environment and help the UK meet targets on green energy and greenhouse gas emissions. ... > full story

Does belief in free will lead to action? (March 23, 2011) -- Free will may be an illusion. Yet we persist in believing we are the masters of our fates -- and that belief affects how we act. Think you determine the course of your life and you're likely to work harder toward your goals and feel better about yourself too. Think you don't, and you're likelier to behave in ways that fulfill that prophesy. ... > full story

Tree resin captures key evidence of current and ancient insect invasions (March 23, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered that insects that bore into trees as long ago as 90 million years, or as recently as last summer, leave a calling card that's rich with information. ... > full story

Youth at risk for obesity show greater brain activity in response to food (March 23, 2011) -- In a novel study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), investigators compared the neural response to food and monetary reward in lean adolescents at risk for obesity relative to lean adolescents not at risk for obesity. Results suggest that the initial vulnerability that gives rise to obesity may be elevated rather than blunted sensitivity of the brain's reward circuitry. ... > full story

European coastal pollution is harmful to seals, study finds (March 23, 2011) -- The bodies of harbor seals, which live in estuaries or along coastlines where industrial activities take place, are highly contaminated. This is the result of a European study, involving Spanish participation, which warns of the danger to these mammals from ports throughout Europe, even in the Mediterranean. ... > full story

Number of child diarrhea deaths can be halved with current interventions, experts say (March 23, 2011) -- Deaths from diarrhea -- a major killer of young children in poor countries -- could be almost halved if already available interventions such as breastfeeding, hand washing with soap and improved household water treatment were widely implemented, according to experts. ... > full story

Plant buffers can slow runoff of veterinary antibiotics (March 23, 2011) -- Field tests support laboratory research indicating that vegetative buffer strips can reduce levels of herbicide and veterinary antibiotics in runoff from farm plots. Plant species tested included tall fescue, switchgrass and native warm-season grasses. Researchers applied three herbicides and three antibiotics, then generated water runoff using a rotating-boom rainfall simulator. All vegetative buffer systems significantly reduced the transport of dissolved and sediment-bound herbicides atrazine, metolachlor and glyphosate in runoff. ... > full story

Interest in toys predicts effectiveness of autism treatment in toddlers (March 23, 2011) -- Toddlers who played with a limited number of toys showed more improvement in their communication skills following parent-guided treatment than those receiving other community-based treatments. The report is the first to examine this autism treatment -- called Hanen's More Than Words -- for children younger than two showing early signs of an autism spectrum disorder. ... > full story

First image of protein residue in 50-million-year-old reptile skin (March 23, 2011) -- The organic compounds surviving in 50-million-year-old fossilized reptile skin can be seen for the first time, thanks to a stunning infrared image produced by palaeontologists and geochemists. ... > full story

Fiber intake associated with reduced risk of death (March 23, 2011) -- Dietary fiber may be associated with a reduced risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious and respiratory diseases, as well as a reduced risk of death from any cause over a nine-year period, according to a new article. ... > full story

Spinal cord processes information just as areas of brain do, research finds (March 23, 2011) -- Recent research mapping the function and information processing of the spinal cord could improve treatment for spinal cord injuries. ... > full story

Metabolic abnormalities in obese teens may relate to poor diets (March 23, 2011) -- Obese teens may feel healthy, but blood tests reveal inflammation, insulin resistance and high homocysteine levels, metabolic abnormalities that heighten heart disease risk. Both obese and normal weight teens in the study did not eat enough fresh produce, fiber or dairy products, which resulted in deficiencies in important nutrients. ... > full story

New scientific field will study ecological importance of sounds (March 23, 2011) -- Researchers are aiming to create a new scientific field that will use sound as a way to understand the ecological characteristics of a landscape and to reconnect people with the importance of natural sounds. ... > full story

Reports of domestic violence rise 10 percent after NFL upsets, study finds (March 23, 2011) -- Calls to the police reporting men's assaults on their wives or intimate partners rose 10 percent in areas where the local National Football League team lost a game they were favored to win, according to a new analysis of 900 regular-season NFL games reports. Researchers suggest that unexpected disappointment may underlie the loss of control and violent behavior. ... > full story

Bees could reveal key to dementia (March 23, 2011) -- Scientists have succeeded in reversing the aging process in the bee brain -- findings which she believes may bring hope to people with dementia. ... > full story

Pre-conception and early pregnancy iron deficiency harms brain (March 23, 2011) -- A mother's iron deficiency early in pregnancy may have a profound and long-lasting effect on the brain development of the child, even if the lack of iron is not enough to cause severe anemia, according to a new study. ... > full story

New imaging technique provides rapid, high-definition chemistry (March 23, 2011) -- With intensity a million times brighter than sunlight, a new synchrotron-based imaging technique offers high-resolution pictures of the molecular composition of tissues with unprecedented speed and quality. The new technique employs multiple beams of synchrotron light to illuminate a state-of-the-art camera, instead of just one beam. It could have broad applications in a wide array of fields from medicine and forensics to biofuel production and advanced materials. ... > full story

Load up on fiber now, avoid heart disease later (March 23, 2011) -- A new study shows a high-fiber diet could be a critical heart-healthy lifestyle change young and middle-aged adults can make. ... > full story

Good-bye, blind spot: Always keeping robots and humans in view in industrial settings (March 23, 2011) -- Particular care must be taken in a production hall where robots and people work together, where even minor carelessness could result in serious accidents or stop production. Researchers are introducing a new prototype for intelligent safety monitoring in industrial workplaces. ... > full story

Chicken soup for the soul: Comfort food fights loneliness (March 23, 2011) -- Mashed potatoes, macaroni and cheese, meatloaf ... they may be bad for your arteries, but according to an upcoming study, they're good for your heart and emotions. The study focuses on "comfort food" and how it makes people feel. ... > full story

In the race of life, better an adaptable tortoise than a fit hare (March 23, 2011) -- When it comes to survival of the fittest, it's sometimes better to be an adaptable tortoise than a fitness-oriented hare, an evolutionary biologist says. Scientists show that more adaptable bacteria oriented toward long-term improvement prevailed over competitors that held a short-term advantage. ... > full story

Nanomodified surfaces seal leg implants against infection (March 23, 2011) -- Researchers have created nanoscale surfaces for implanted materials that mimic the contours of natural skin. The surfaces attract skin cells that, over time, are shown to build a natural seal against bacterial invasion. The group also created a molecular chain that allows an implant surface to be covered with skin cell-growing proteins, further accelerating skin growth. ... > full story

Good news for meat lovers: Most ready-to-eat meat products contain very few cancerous compounds, study finds (March 23, 2011) -- Researchers have shown that ready-to-eat meat products -- such as pepperoni, deli meats and hot dogs -- are relatively free of carcinogenic compounds. ... > full story

Discovery in liver cancer cells provides new target for drugs (March 23, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a novel mechanism in gene regulation that contributes to the development of a form of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Currently, there is virtually no effective treatment for HCC, and this breakthrough identifies a promising new target for therapeutic intervention. ... > full story

New technique could help solve mystery of vanishing bees (March 23, 2011) -- Ecologists have developed a better way of rearing bee larvae in the laboratory that could help discover why honey bee populations worldwide are declining. The technique, together with details of how statistics adapted from other areas of ecology can aid bee research, is published in a new article. ... > full story

Think you'll ace that test? Think again, then start studying (March 23, 2011) -- We hold many beliefs about memory -- for instance, if you study more, you learn more. We are also constantly making judgments about particular instances of learning and remembering -- I'll never forget this party! That was easy to understand. I'll ace it on the test. ... > full story

Scientists grow personalized collections of intestinal microbes (March 23, 2011) -- Scientists have shown they can grow and manipulate personalized collections of human intestinal microbes in the laboratory and pluck out particular microbes of interest. The research sets the stage for identifying new probiotics and evaluating in preclinical trials whether microbe transplants can restore the natural balance of intestinal bacteria in "sick" microbial communities. ... > full story

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