Selasa, 22 Maret 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Tuesday, March 22, 2011

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Streptococcus enzyme could compete with toothbrushes, dental floss (March 22, 2011) -- Investigators from Japan show in vitro that the bacterium Streptococcus salivarius, a non-biofilm forming, and otherwise harmless inhabitant of the human mouth, actually inhibits the formation of dental biofilms, otherwise known as plaque. Two enzymes this bacteria produces are responsible for this inhibition. ... > full story

New statement offers advice on treating dangerous, deep blood clots (March 22, 2011) -- More than 250,000 Americans are hospitalized yearly because of blood clots that form in veins deep inside the body. A new American Heart Association statement gives doctors guidance on diagnosing and treating these potentially deadly blockages. ... > full story

Canadian Avalanche victims die significantly quicker than Swiss counterparts, study finds (March 22, 2011) -- Avalanche victims buried in Canada die significantly quicker than those buried in Switzerland, according to new research. ... > full story

A better test for human papillomavirus (March 22, 2011) -- A new test for human papillomavirus (HPV) is just as sensitive as the old one, but more specific for detecting cervical cancer, meaning that it has fewer false positive results, according to a new study. ... > full story

New model for studying Parkinson's: Swiss researchers develop new, working mammalian model to combat genetic causes of the disease (March 22, 2011) -- Evidence is steadily mounting that genetic factors play an important role in many cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Researchers in Switzerland now report a new mammalian model for studying a specific gene mutation commonly found in PD sufferers, opening the door to new drugs to fight the malady. ... > full story

Breakthrough in Niemann-Pick Type C research (March 22, 2011) -- Researchers explain how use of a histone deacetylase inhibitor corrects the damage done by the genetic disorder Niewmann-Pick Type C and allowed once-diseased cells to function normally. ... > full story

Teenagers, parents and teachers unaware of social networking risks (March 22, 2011) -- A report into the legal risks associated with the use of social networking sites has found that while 95 percent of students surveyed in years 7 to 10 use social networking sites, nearly 30 percent did not consider social networking to hold any risks. ... > full story

Spacebound bacteria inspire earthbound remedies (March 21, 2011) -- Recent research aboard the Space Shuttle is giving scientists a better understanding of how infectious disease occurs in space and could someday improve astronaut health and provide novel treatments for people on Earth. ... > full story

Cigarette smoking associated with increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (March 21, 2011) -- Cigarette smoking may be associated with an increased risk of developing the muscle-wasting disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, according to a new article. ... > full story

A dose of safflower oil each day might help keep heart disease at bay (March 21, 2011) -- A daily dose of safflower oil, a common cooking oil, for 16 weeks can improve such health measures as good cholesterol, blood sugar, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obese postmenopausal women who have Type 2 diabetes, according to new research. This finding comes about 18 months after the same researchers discovered that safflower oil reduced abdominal fat and increased muscle tissue in this group of women after 16 weeks of daily supplementation. ... > full story

Trauma patients protected from worse outcomes associated with so-called 'weekend effect' (March 21, 2011) -- Patients who've been hurt in car or bike crashes, been shot or stabbed, or suffered other injuries are more likely to live if they arrive at the hospital on the weekend than during the week, according to new research. ... > full story

Molecular determinant of cell identity discovered (March 21, 2011) -- If a big bunch of your brain cells suddenly went rogue and decided to become fat cells, it could cloud your decision-making capacity a bit. Fortunately, early in an organism's development, cells make firm and more-or-less permanent decisions about whether they will live their lives as, say, skin cells, brain cells or, well, fat cells. ... > full story

Treatment breakthrough for rare disease linked to diabetes (March 21, 2011) -- Scientists have led an international team to discover new treatments for a rare and potentially lethal childhood disease that is the clinical opposite of diabetes mellitus. ... > full story

Multi-tasking on the street not a good idea for older people (March 21, 2011) -- Older adults may put themselves at risk by talking on cell phones while crossing the street, researchers report in a new study. The researchers found that adults aged 59 to 81 took significantly longer than college students to cross a simulated street while talking on a mobile phone, and their heightened cautiousness in initiating crossing did nothing to improve their safety. Older adults on cell phones also were more likely to fail to cross in the time allotted for the task. ... > full story

Stem cells may show promise for people with rapidly progressing multiple sclerosis (March 21, 2011) -- A long term study reports about the effectiveness of replacing bone marrow, purposely destroyed by chemotherapy, with autologous (self) stem cell rescue for people with aggressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). ... > full story

Cardiovascular disease: Polypill appears safe and accepted by physicians and patients in developing countries (March 21, 2011) -- A new study provides evidence that a CVD polypill may be a viable option for developing countries, where CVD is strongly emerging and the demand for cost-effective, low maintenance treatment is high. ... > full story

Does social anxiety disorder respond to psychotherapy? Brain study says yes (March 21, 2011) -- When psychotherapy is helping someone get better, what does that change look like in the brain? This was the question a team of psychological scientists set out to investigate in patients suffering from social anxiety disorder. ... > full story

Organic nanoparticle uses sound and heat to find and treat tumors (March 21, 2011) -- Scientists have created an organic nanoparticle that is completely non-toxic, biodegradable and nimble in the way it uses light and heat to treat cancer and deliver drugs. ... > full story

Newer antimalarials more effective than quinine against severe malaria (March 21, 2011) -- Quinine should no longer be the drug of choice for treating severe malaria, according to an updated systematic review. It is now evident that the antimalarial drug artesunate, which is derived from herbs used in Chinese medicine, is more effective at preventing death in patients with severe malaria. ... > full story

Poorly presented risk statistics could misinform health decisions (March 21, 2011) -- Choosing the appropriate way to present risk statistics is key to helping people make well-informed decisions. A new systematic review found that health professionals and consumers may change their perceptions when the same risks and risk reductions are presented using alternative statistical formats. ... > full story

Brain has three layers of working memory, study shows (March 21, 2011) -- Researchers have found support for the theory that the brain has three concentric layers of working memory where it stores readily available items. Memory researchers have long debated whether there are two or three layers and what the capacity and function of each layer is. ... > full story

Blood pressure: 100 million Americans may be unnecessarily labeled abnormal (March 21, 2011) -- Current US definition of 'normal' blood pressure may unnecessarily label 100 million Americans as 'abnormal.' ... > full story

Gut bacteria can control organ functions (March 21, 2011) -- Bacteria in the human gut may not just be helping digest food but also could be exerting some level of control over the metabolic functions of other organs, like the liver, according to new research. These findings offer new understanding of the symbiotic relationship between humans and their gut microbes and how changes to the microbiota can impact overall health. ... > full story

Major clue in long-term memory-making (March 21, 2011) -- You may remember the color of your loved one's eyes for years. But how? Scientists believe that long-term potentiation (LTP) -- the long-lasting increase of signals across a connection between brain cells -- underlies our ability to remember over time and to learn, but how that happens is a central question in neuroscience. ... > full story

Tiny gems take big step toward battling cancer (March 21, 2011) -- Researchers have now demonstrated the significance and translational potential of nanodiamonds in the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancers. In studies of liver and breast cancer models in vivo, the team found that a normally lethal amount of a chemotherapy drug when bound to nanodiamonds significantly reduced the size of tumors in mice. Survival rates also increased and no toxic effects on tissues and organs were observed. ... > full story

Silk moth's antenna inspires new nanotech tool with applications in Alzheimer's research (March 21, 2011) -- By mimicking the structure of the silk moth's antenna, researchers led the development of a better nanopore -- a tiny tunnel-shaped tool that could advance understanding of a class of neurodegenerative diseases that includes Alzheimer's. ... > full story

Researchers link novel biomarkers to asthma and COPD (March 21, 2011) -- Four novel biomarkers have been identified which may aid in the diagnosis and management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to a study conducted by researchers in Australia, who determined the biomarkers may be used in different combinations to successfully identify patients with either of the airway diseases. In conducting the study, the researchers relied on proteomics, an emerging field of science that focuses on the structure and functions of an organism's proteins. ... > full story

Potential 'game changer' for pathologists (March 21, 2011) -- A technique aims to make computer-aided tissue analysis better, faster and simpler. ... > full story

Sleep-deprived people make risky decisions based on too much optimism (March 21, 2011) -- The powers that be in Las Vegas figured out something long before neuroscientists confirmed their ideas in a recent study: Trying to make decisions while sleep-deprived can lead to a case of optimism. ... > full story

Making viruses pass for 'safe' (March 21, 2011) -- Viruses can penetrate every part of the body, making them potentially good tools for gene therapy or drug delivery. But with our immune system primed to seek and destroy these foreign invaders, delivering therapies with viruses is currently inefficient and can pose a significant danger to patients. ... > full story

How inherited genes contribute to a common, incurable neurodegenerative disease (March 21, 2011) -- A team of scientists has developed a new model for how inherited genes contribute to a common but untreatable and incurable neurodegenerative disease. The disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, is the second most common cause of dementia before age 65, after Alzheimer's disease. ... > full story

New gene sites affecting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease discovered (March 21, 2011) -- Five genetic variants in humans -- four new -- associate with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, according to a study. ... > full story

Mutant prions help cells foil harmful protein misfolding (March 21, 2011) -- Misfolded proteins are implicated in many incurable neurological diseases. A new and improved understanding of how naturally occurring variants keep proteins from bunching up and spreading provides more options for developing a treatment than scientists had realized. ... > full story

Hormone pathway to fatty liver disease uncovered (March 21, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered how a change in growth hormone activity in mice leads to fatty liver disease, a condition whose human counterpart is of rising concern worldwide. ... > full story

Message to postmenopausal women: 'Increase yearly dental checkups,' researcher urges (March 21, 2011) -- Postmenopausal women have a new health message to hear. Two annual dental checkups aren't enough. Older women need more, according to new research findings. That message comes from a comparison study of women on and off bone-strengthening bisphosphonate therapies for osteoporosis. ... > full story

Important structure in the transmission of light signals deciphered (March 21, 2011) -- Scientists have made a new discovery in the basics of signal transduction research. They were able to clarify for the first time, in an important information carrier in the human body, the receptor protein rhodopsin, how such a protein must be designed to accommodate a light signal. ... > full story

Psychosocially hazardous neighborhoods associated with worse cognitive function in some older adults (March 21, 2011) -- Residing in a psychosocially hazardous neighborhood is associated with worse cognitive function in older age for persons with the apolipoprotein E µ4 allele (an alternative form of the gene), according to a new report. ... > full story

Masked fears: Are fears that are seemingly overcome only hidden? (March 20, 2011) -- Fear is a natural part of our emotional life and acts as a necessary protection mechanism. However, fears sometimes grow beyond proportions and become difficult to shed. Scientists have now used computer simulations to understand the processes within the brain during the formation and extinction of fears. ... > full story

Economics and evolution help scientists identify new strategy to control antibiotic resistance (March 20, 2011) -- Scientists have taken lessons from Adam Smith and Charles Darwin to devise a new strategy that could one day slow, possibly even prevent, the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. The scientists show that bacterial gene mutations that lead to drug resistance come at a biological cost not borne by nonresistant strains. ... > full story

Modified mRNA is the key to novel anti-cancer therapy, experts offer (March 20, 2011) -- Modern gene therapies raise hopes of combating many diseases until now considered terminal. Today, however, the methods are expensive and carry a risk of severe complications. Modifications to ribonucleic acid mRNA may offer safer and more effective gene drug alternatives. Clinical trials of the first new-generation anti-cancer vaccine will begin later this year. ... > full story

Virtual conversation simulator found beneficial for adults with autism (March 20, 2011) -- Simulated interactions in which adults with autism converse with a virtual partner may help them develop better social interaction skills, according to a novel study. ... > full story

Researchers find indirect path to attack breast cancer stem cells (March 20, 2011) -- Scientists have identified a potential new way of attacking breast cancer stem cells, the small number of cells in a tumor that fuel its growth and spread. ... > full story

Tests on century-old equipment show how far X-rays have come (March 20, 2011) -- Researchers recently tested first-generation x-ray equipment from 1896 and found that it produced radiation doses and exposure times that were vastly higher than those of today's systems, according a new study. ... > full story

Are whole-body image scanners used for U.S. airport security safe? (March 20, 2011) -- The Transportation Security Administration has begun to use whole-body imaging scanners as a primary screening measure on travelers passing through airport security checkpoints. One type of scanner currently deployed at airports uses backscatter X-rays that expose the individual being screened to very low levels of ionizing radiation. Two new articles address the question of what potential long-term public health threats backscatter X-ray systems pose. ... > full story

Tai chi beats back depression in the elderly, study shows (March 20, 2011) -- To fight depression in the elderly, researchers combined a weekly Tai chi exercise class with a standard depression treatment for a group of depressed, elderly people. The found greater improvement in their level of depression, along with improved quality of life, better memory and cognition, and more overall energy. ... > full story

U.S. death rate falls for 10th straight year (March 20, 2011) -- The age-adjusted death rate for the U.S. population fell to an all-time low of 741 deaths per 100,000 people in 2009 -- 2.3 percent lower than the 2008 rate, according to preliminary 2009 death statistics. This marks the 10th year in a row that U.S. deaths rates have declined. ... > full story

Radiation risks to health: A joint statement from leading scientific experts (March 20, 2011) -- The growing concern surrounding the release of radiation from an earthquake and tsunami-stricken nuclear complex in Japan has raised fears of radiation exposure to populations in North America from the potential plume of radioactivity crossing the Pacific Ocean. Experts have issued a statement to help Americans understand their radiation-related health risks. ... > full story

Americans like their drinks 'sickeningly sweet' but new labeling may make a difference (March 20, 2011) -- Americans may like their drinks "sickeningly sweet" but a new labeling initiative may discourage us from pouring on the unnecessary calories, said a medical weight-loss specialist. ... > full story

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