Selasa, 22 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Tuesday, February 22, 2011

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Carbon sink at South Pole has grown recently, historical collections reveal (February 22, 2011) -- By studying collections of a marine bryozoan that date back to a famous 1901 expedition to the South Pole, researchers have found that those organisms were growing steadily up until 1990, when their growth more than doubled. The data provide the highest-latitude record of a century of growth and some of the first evidence that polar carbon sinks may be increasing. ... > full story

Careful cleaning of children's skin wounds key to healing, regardless of antibiotic choice (February 22, 2011) -- When it comes to curing skin infected with the antibiotic-resistant bacterium MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), timely and proper wound cleaning and draining may be more important than the choice of antibiotic, according to a new study. ... > full story

Antifungal compound found on tropical seaweed has promising antimalarial properties (February 22, 2011) -- A group of chemical compounds used by a species of tropical seaweed to ward off fungus attacks may have promising antimalarial properties for humans. The compounds are part of a unique chemical signaling system that seaweeds use to battle enemies -- and that may provide a wealth of potential new pharmaceutical compounds. ... > full story

Hearing impairment common, perhaps preventable, chronic disease among middle-aged adults (February 22, 2011) -- Several factors may be associated with hearing impairment in middle-aged adults, including cardiovascular disease risks, being male and having a noisy job, according to new study. ... > full story

Practice more important than child's age in learning to use computer mouse (February 22, 2011) -- Children as young as five years old can learn how to use a computer mouse, new research suggests. While age is an important component in determining how well a child controls a mouse, the study also found that how frequently a child practices may be even more important. ... > full story

Poor park planning drives kids indoors (February 22, 2011) -- What does it take to keep children active when they get home from school? It seems that what your neighborhood offers in terms of parks and playgrounds has a lot to do with it. In a study looking at the links between the quality of outdoor public spaces, parents' perception of them, and children's sedentary behavior, researchers in Australia, show that neighborhood features do influence whether or not children watch less television and play fewer computer games after school. ... > full story

Engineering atomic interfaces for new electronics (February 22, 2011) -- Most people cross borders such as doorways or state lines without thinking much about it. Yet not all borders are places of limbo intended only for crossing. Some borders, like those between two materials that are brought together, are dynamic places where special things can happen. For an electron moving from one material toward the other, this space is where it can join other electrons, which together can create current, magnetism or even light. Researchers have made fundamental discoveries at the border regions, called interfaces, between oxide materials. ... > full story

Gastric bypass surgery associated with improved health outcomes, studies find (February 22, 2011) -- Gastric bypass surgery appears to lead to better long-term results including greater weight loss, resolution of diabetes and improved quality of life compared with sleeve gastrectomy and "lap-band" surgery, according to two new studies. ... > full story

Climate and aerosols: NASA's Glory satellite promises new view of perplexing particles (February 22, 2011) -- Climatologists have known for decades that airborne particles called aerosols can have a powerful impact on the climate. However, pinpointing the magnitude of the effect has proven challenging because of difficulties associated with measuring the particles on a global scale. Soon a new NASA satellite -- Glory -- should help scientists collect the data needed to provide firmer answers about the important particles. In California, engineers and technicians at Vandenberg Air Force Base are currently prepping Glory for a Feb. 23 launch. ... > full story

Surgery sooner rather than later better for children with perforated appendicitis (February 22, 2011) -- For children with a perforated appendix, early appendectomy appears to reduce the time away from normal activities and has fewer adverse events as compared to another common option, the interval appendectomy, which is performed several weeks after diagnosis, according to a new study. ... > full story

Climate change affecting food safety (February 22, 2011) -- Climate change is already having an effect on the safety of the world's food supplies and unless action is taken it's only going to get worse, a group of experts has warned. ... > full story

Famed neurosurgeon's century-old notes reveal 'modern' style admission of medical error (February 22, 2011) -- The current focus on medical errors isn't quite as new as it seems. A new review of groundbreaking neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing's notes, made at the turn of the last century, has turned up copious documentation of his own surgical mishaps as well as his suggestions for preventing those mistakes in the future. ... > full story

Plants cloned as seeds: Hybrids that breed true would be major advance for crop plants (February 21, 2011) -- Plants have for the first time been cloned as seeds. The research is a major step towards making hybrid crop plants that can retain favorable traits from generation to generation. ... > full story

Statins may prevent diabetic-related blindness, study suggests (February 21, 2011) -- New research has found that a statin drug that is often known by the brand-name Lipitor may help prevent blindness in people with diabetes. ... > full story

Brain-machine interfaces make gains by learning about their users, letting them rest, and allowing for multitasking (February 21, 2011) -- You may have heard of virtual keyboards controlled by thought, brain-powered wheelchairs, and neuro-prosthetic limbs. But powering these machines can be downright tiring, a fact that prevents the technology from being of much use to people with disabilities, among others. Researchers in Switzerland have a solution: engineer the system so that it learns about its user, allows for periods of rest, and even multitasking. ... > full story

Enzyme helps prepare lung tissue for metastatic development (February 21, 2011) -- Scientists have identified a new role for an important enzyme in preparing lung tissue for the development of metastases. Their report describes how focal adhesion kinase is involved in producing areas of vascular leakiness in lung tissue -- known to be part of the premetastatic process -- and increases expression of a molecule that attracts cancer cells to potential metastatic sites. ... > full story

Better way to diagnose pneumonia (February 21, 2011) -- Researchers have created a new sampling device that could prevent thousands of people worldwide from dying of pneumonia each year. ... > full story

Gorillas go green: Apes shed pounds while doubling calories on leafy diet, researcher finds (February 21, 2011) -- Gorillas in Cleveland Metroparks Zoo have dropped about 65 pounds after a year on a leafy green diet. The change is an effort to combat heart disease, the top killer of male gorillas in US zoos. ... > full story

Scientists steer car with the power of thought (February 21, 2011) -- Computer scientists have developed a system making it possible to steer a car with your thoughts. Using new commercially available sensors to measure brain waves -- sensors for recording electroencephalograms (EEG) -- the scientists were able to distinguish the bioelectrical wave patterns for control commands such as "left," "right," "accelerate" or "brake" in a test subject. ... > full story

Using amphetamines may increase risk of Parkinson's disease, study suggests (February 21, 2011) -- New research shows people who have used amphetamines such as benzedrine and dexedrine appear to be at an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. ... > full story

Advanced NASA instrument gets close-up on Mars rocks (February 21, 2011) -- NASA's Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will carry a next generation, onboard "chemical element reader" to measure the chemical ingredients in Martian rocks and soil. The instrument is one of 10 that will help the rover in its upcoming mission to determine the past and present habitability of a specific area on the Red Planet. Launch is scheduled between Nov. 25 and Dec. 18, 2011, with landing in August 2012. ... > full story

New model for probing antidepressant actions (February 21, 2011) -- How antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work can be thoroughly explored with a new mouse model developed by neuroscientists. The mice express a serotonin transporter that has been genetically altered so that it does not respond to many SSRIs or cocaine. The new mouse model could also lead to the development of entirely new classes of antidepressant medications. ... > full story

The world’s oldest water? (February 21, 2011) -- New evidence bolsters the notion that deep saline groundwaters in South Africa's Witwatersrand Basin may have remained isolated for many thousands, perhaps even millions, of years. The study found the noble gas neon dissolved in water in three-kilometer deep crevices. ... > full story

Juggling languages can build better brains (February 21, 2011) -- Once likened to a confusing tower of Babel, speaking more than one language can actually bolster brain function by serving as a mental gymnasium, according to researchers. ... > full story

Can WISE find the hypothetical 'Tyche' planet at edge of our solar system? (February 21, 2011) -- Two astrophysicists recently proposed the existence of a binary companion to our sun, larger than Jupiter, in the long-hypothesized "Oort cloud" -- a faraway repository of small icy bodies at the edge of our solar system. The researchers use the name "Tyche" for the hypothetical planet. Their paper argues that evidence for the planet would have been recorded by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). ... > full story

How absent reoviruses kill cancer (February 21, 2011) -- Reoviruses are successfully being used in clinical trials to treat patients with cancer. Not only does the virus cause cancer cells to die, it also forces them to release pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, which in turn causes the patient's immune system to attack the disease. New research shows that reovirus infected cancer cells secrete proteins which, even when isolated, result in the death of cancer cells. ... > full story

Plants that can move inspire new adaptive structures (February 21, 2011) -- The Mimosa plant, which folds its leaves when they're touched, is inspiring a new class of adaptive structures designed to twist, bend, stiffen and even heal themselves. ... > full story

Inexpensive rinsing effective at reducing post-op infection following joint replacement surgery (February 21, 2011) -- A rinsing technique with betadine that costs just a little over one dollar per patient may significantly reduce the infection rate following total knee and hip joint replacement surgery, according to a new study. ... > full story

New technology for cheaper, more efficient solar cells (February 21, 2011) -- Applying an organic layer less than a nanometer thick improves the efficiency of certain solar cells three-fold. The technology could lead to cheaper, more efficient solar panels. ... > full story

Emotional response may predict how the body responds to stress (February 21, 2011) -- Your emotional response to challenging situations could predict how your body responds to stress, according to new research. ... > full story

Manipulating molecules for a new breed of electronics (February 21, 2011) -- Scientists have demonstrated a clever way of controlling electrical conductance of a single molecule, by exploiting the molecule's mechanical properties. ... > full story

Floating spores kill malaria mosquito larvae (February 21, 2011) -- There are over 200 million cases of malaria each year and, in 2009, malaria was responsible for 781,000 deaths worldwide. Malaria is spread by mosquitoes which breed in open water and spend much of their larval stage feeding on fungi and microorganisms at the water surface. New research presents a method of dispersing pathogenic fungi as a means of preventing the spread of malaria. ... > full story

Testing the limits of where humans can live (February 21, 2011) -- On an isolated segment of islands in the Pacific Ring of Fire, residents endure volcanoes, tsunamis, dense fog, steep cliffs and long and chilly winters. Researchers have studied the history of human settlement on the Kuril Islands. Understanding how residents survived the islands' severe environment could inform how we adapt to modern vulnerabilities, including climate change. The findings also have implications for how we rebound from contemporary catastrophes. ... > full story

Common hip disorder can cause sports hernia (February 21, 2011) -- Sports hernias are commonly found in individuals with a mechanical disorder of the hip and can be resolved with surgery to fix the hip disorder alone in some cases, according to a recent study. ... > full story

Spent nuclear fuel is anything but waste (February 21, 2011) -- Failure to pursue a program for recycling spent nuclear fuel has put the US far behind other countries and represents a missed opportunity to enhance the nation's energy security and influence other countries. ... > full story

Callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems in children can lead to antisocial behavior in pre-teens (February 21, 2011) -- Researchers stress the importance of callous-unemotional traits in identifying children at risk of antisocial behavior and other adjustment problems. ... > full story

Trichinosis parasite gets DNA decoded (February 21, 2011) -- Scientists have decoded the DNA of the parasitic worm that causes trichinosis, a disease linked to eating raw or undercooked pork or carnivorous wild game animals, such as bear and walrus. ... > full story

Personalized medicine comes within reach (February 21, 2011) -- A team of biologists, clinical oncologists, pathologists and information scientists has established a strategy for identifying biomarkers. If a particular pattern of these biomarkers can be detected in the blood, this indicates a cancerous disease. An interdisciplinary research breakthrough that opens many doors. ... > full story

Groundbreaking technology will revolutionize blood pressure measurement (February 21, 2011) -- Pioneering new technology will lead to better treatment decisions and better outcomes for patients, researchers say. ... > full story

Large study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reveals some surprises (February 21, 2011) -- Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is highly effective and provides durable results five years after surgery, according to a large, prospective study. The study also surprisingly revealed that the rotator cuff has the ability to heal even when early imaging studies have found a defect at the site of repair. ... > full story

New assessment of black carbon and tropospheric ozone's role in climate change (February 21, 2011) -- Specific measures could already have a positive impact on climate protection and public health. These measures do not replace those related to carbon dioxide, and their full implementation could reduce global warming by 0.5 degrees C. ... > full story

Look after your brain (February 21, 2011) -- As the average life span becomes longer, dementia becomes more common. Swedish scientists have shown that everyone can minimize his or her risk of being affected. Factors from blood pressure and weight to the degree of physical and mental activity can influence cognitive functioning as one gets older. ... > full story

Influence of skin cancer on quality of life appears more substantial for women (February 21, 2011) -- Women seem to experience more health-related quality of life issues than men for up to 10 years following a diagnosis of the skin cancer melanoma, according to a new study. ... > full story

Patient education helps earlier detection of skin lesions after kidney transplant (February 21, 2011) -- Sharing printed educational materials about the risk of squamous cell carcinoma with kidney transplant recipients appeared to be effective at increasing skin self-examination and encouraging follow-up with a dermatologist to determine risk of cancer, according to a new study. ... > full story

Sustainability solutions need the power of networks (February 21, 2011) -- The choices an individual makes about environmental issues are affected by family, friends and others in a person's social network. Scientists are studying how to harness the power of social networks to better communicate sustainability science. ... > full story

Physicists build bigger 'bottles' of antimatter to unlock nature's secrets (February 20, 2011) -- Once regarded as the stuff of science fiction, antimatter -- the mirror image of the ordinary matter in our observable universe -- is now the focus of laboratory studies around the world. While physicists routinely produce antimatter with radioisotopes and particle colliders, cooling these antiparticles and containing them for any length of time is another story. One scientists is constructing what he hopes will be the world's largest antimatter container. ... > full story

Stretching before a run does not necessarily prevent injury, study finds (February 20, 2011) -- Stretching before a run neither prevents nor causes injury, according to a new study. However, runners who typically stretch as part of their pre-run routine and were randomized not to stretch during the study period were far more likely to have an injury. ... > full story

Why innocent suspects may confess to a crime (February 20, 2011) -- Why would anyone falsely confess to a crime they didn't commit? It seems illogical, but according to The Innocence Project, there have been 266 post-conviction DNA exonerations since 1989 -- 25 percent of which involved a false confession. A new study may shed light on one reason for those false confessions. ... > full story

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