Selasa, 22 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Tuesday, February 22, 2011

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Careful cleaning of children's skin wounds key to healing, regardless of antibiotic choice (February 22, 2011) -- When it comes to curing skin infected with the antibiotic-resistant bacterium MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), timely and proper wound cleaning and draining may be more important than the choice of antibiotic, according to a new study. ... > full story

Antifungal compound found on tropical seaweed has promising antimalarial properties (February 22, 2011) -- A group of chemical compounds used by a species of tropical seaweed to ward off fungus attacks may have promising antimalarial properties for humans. The compounds are part of a unique chemical signaling system that seaweeds use to battle enemies -- and that may provide a wealth of potential new pharmaceutical compounds. ... > full story

Hearing impairment common, perhaps preventable, chronic disease among middle-aged adults (February 22, 2011) -- Several factors may be associated with hearing impairment in middle-aged adults, including cardiovascular disease risks, being male and having a noisy job, according to new study. ... > full story

Practice more important than child's age in learning to use computer mouse (February 22, 2011) -- Children as young as five years old can learn how to use a computer mouse, new research suggests. While age is an important component in determining how well a child controls a mouse, the study also found that how frequently a child practices may be even more important. ... > full story

Gastric bypass surgery associated with improved health outcomes, studies find (February 22, 2011) -- Gastric bypass surgery appears to lead to better long-term results including greater weight loss, resolution of diabetes and improved quality of life compared with sleeve gastrectomy and "lap-band" surgery, according to two new studies. ... > full story

Surgery sooner rather than later better for children with perforated appendicitis (February 22, 2011) -- For children with a perforated appendix, early appendectomy appears to reduce the time away from normal activities and has fewer adverse events as compared to another common option, the interval appendectomy, which is performed several weeks after diagnosis, according to a new study. ... > full story

Famed neurosurgeon's century-old notes reveal 'modern' style admission of medical error (February 22, 2011) -- The current focus on medical errors isn't quite as new as it seems. A new review of groundbreaking neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing's notes, made at the turn of the last century, has turned up copious documentation of his own surgical mishaps as well as his suggestions for preventing those mistakes in the future. ... > full story

Statins may prevent diabetic-related blindness, study suggests (February 21, 2011) -- New research has found that a statin drug that is often known by the brand-name Lipitor may help prevent blindness in people with diabetes. ... > full story

Brain-machine interfaces make gains by learning about their users, letting them rest, and allowing for multitasking (February 21, 2011) -- You may have heard of virtual keyboards controlled by thought, brain-powered wheelchairs, and neuro-prosthetic limbs. But powering these machines can be downright tiring, a fact that prevents the technology from being of much use to people with disabilities, among others. Researchers in Switzerland have a solution: engineer the system so that it learns about its user, allows for periods of rest, and even multitasking. ... > full story

Enzyme helps prepare lung tissue for metastatic development (February 21, 2011) -- Scientists have identified a new role for an important enzyme in preparing lung tissue for the development of metastases. Their report describes how focal adhesion kinase is involved in producing areas of vascular leakiness in lung tissue -- known to be part of the premetastatic process -- and increases expression of a molecule that attracts cancer cells to potential metastatic sites. ... > full story

Better way to diagnose pneumonia (February 21, 2011) -- Researchers have created a new sampling device that could prevent thousands of people worldwide from dying of pneumonia each year. ... > full story

Scientists steer car with the power of thought (February 21, 2011) -- Computer scientists have developed a system making it possible to steer a car with your thoughts. Using new commercially available sensors to measure brain waves -- sensors for recording electroencephalograms (EEG) -- the scientists were able to distinguish the bioelectrical wave patterns for control commands such as "left," "right," "accelerate" or "brake" in a test subject. ... > full story

Using amphetamines may increase risk of Parkinson's disease, study suggests (February 21, 2011) -- New research shows people who have used amphetamines such as benzedrine and dexedrine appear to be at an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. ... > full story

New model for probing antidepressant actions (February 21, 2011) -- How antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work can be thoroughly explored with a new mouse model developed by neuroscientists. The mice express a serotonin transporter that has been genetically altered so that it does not respond to many SSRIs or cocaine. The new mouse model could also lead to the development of entirely new classes of antidepressant medications. ... > full story

Juggling languages can build better brains (February 21, 2011) -- Once likened to a confusing tower of Babel, speaking more than one language can actually bolster brain function by serving as a mental gymnasium, according to researchers. ... > full story

How absent reoviruses kill cancer (February 21, 2011) -- Reoviruses are successfully being used in clinical trials to treat patients with cancer. Not only does the virus cause cancer cells to die, it also forces them to release pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, which in turn causes the patient's immune system to attack the disease. New research shows that reovirus infected cancer cells secrete proteins which, even when isolated, result in the death of cancer cells. ... > full story

Inexpensive rinsing effective at reducing post-op infection following joint replacement surgery (February 21, 2011) -- A rinsing technique with betadine that costs just a little over one dollar per patient may significantly reduce the infection rate following total knee and hip joint replacement surgery, according to a new study. ... > full story

Emotional response may predict how the body responds to stress (February 21, 2011) -- Your emotional response to challenging situations could predict how your body responds to stress, according to new research. ... > full story

Floating spores kill malaria mosquito larvae (February 21, 2011) -- There are over 200 million cases of malaria each year and, in 2009, malaria was responsible for 781,000 deaths worldwide. Malaria is spread by mosquitoes which breed in open water and spend much of their larval stage feeding on fungi and microorganisms at the water surface. New research presents a method of dispersing pathogenic fungi as a means of preventing the spread of malaria. ... > full story

Common hip disorder can cause sports hernia (February 21, 2011) -- Sports hernias are commonly found in individuals with a mechanical disorder of the hip and can be resolved with surgery to fix the hip disorder alone in some cases, according to a recent study. ... > full story

Callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems in children can lead to antisocial behavior in pre-teens (February 21, 2011) -- Researchers stress the importance of callous-unemotional traits in identifying children at risk of antisocial behavior and other adjustment problems. ... > full story

Trichinosis parasite gets DNA decoded (February 21, 2011) -- Scientists have decoded the DNA of the parasitic worm that causes trichinosis, a disease linked to eating raw or undercooked pork or carnivorous wild game animals, such as bear and walrus. ... > full story

Personalized medicine comes within reach (February 21, 2011) -- A team of biologists, clinical oncologists, pathologists and information scientists has established a strategy for identifying biomarkers. If a particular pattern of these biomarkers can be detected in the blood, this indicates a cancerous disease. An interdisciplinary research breakthrough that opens many doors. ... > full story

Groundbreaking technology will revolutionize blood pressure measurement (February 21, 2011) -- Pioneering new technology will lead to better treatment decisions and better outcomes for patients, researchers say. ... > full story

Large study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reveals some surprises (February 21, 2011) -- Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is highly effective and provides durable results five years after surgery, according to a large, prospective study. The study also surprisingly revealed that the rotator cuff has the ability to heal even when early imaging studies have found a defect at the site of repair. ... > full story

Look after your brain (February 21, 2011) -- As the average life span becomes longer, dementia becomes more common. Swedish scientists have shown that everyone can minimize his or her risk of being affected. Factors from blood pressure and weight to the degree of physical and mental activity can influence cognitive functioning as one gets older. ... > full story

Influence of skin cancer on quality of life appears more substantial for women (February 21, 2011) -- Women seem to experience more health-related quality of life issues than men for up to 10 years following a diagnosis of the skin cancer melanoma, according to a new study. ... > full story

Patient education helps earlier detection of skin lesions after kidney transplant (February 21, 2011) -- Sharing printed educational materials about the risk of squamous cell carcinoma with kidney transplant recipients appeared to be effective at increasing skin self-examination and encouraging follow-up with a dermatologist to determine risk of cancer, according to a new study. ... > full story

Stretching before a run does not necessarily prevent injury, study finds (February 20, 2011) -- Stretching before a run neither prevents nor causes injury, according to a new study. However, runners who typically stretch as part of their pre-run routine and were randomized not to stretch during the study period were far more likely to have an injury. ... > full story

Why innocent suspects may confess to a crime (February 20, 2011) -- Why would anyone falsely confess to a crime they didn't commit? It seems illogical, but according to The Innocence Project, there have been 266 post-conviction DNA exonerations since 1989 -- 25 percent of which involved a false confession. A new study may shed light on one reason for those false confessions. ... > full story

Role of helmets in reducing skull fractures incurred by children in skiing and snowboarding accidents (February 20, 2011) -- New research reviews skull fractures incurred by young skiers and snowboarders and the role helmets play in reducing these head injuries. Severe head trauma is the most frequent cause of death and severe disability in skiers and snowboarders and accounts for about 15 percent of all skiing and snowboarding related injuries. Although helmet use is apparently increasing, it remains far from universal. Researchers found compelling evidence that skull fractures sustained by children in skiing and snowboarding pose serious risk. ... > full story

Universal flu vaccine study yields success in mice (February 20, 2011) -- Researchers have taken a step closer to the development of a universal flu vaccine, with results of a recent study showing that a vaccine delivered by a simple nasal spray could provide protection against influenza. ... > full story

Anti-aging hormone Klotho may prevent complications in chronic kidney disease, research suggests (February 20, 2011) -- Low levels of the anti-aging hormone Klotho may serve as an early warning sign of the presence of kidney disease and its deadly cardiovascular complications, according to new findings. ... > full story

Infants raised in bilingual environments can distinguish unfamiliar languages (February 20, 2011) -- Infants raised in households where Spanish and Catalan are spoken can discriminate between English and French just by watching people speak, even though they have never been exposed to these new languages before, according to new research. ... > full story

New high-resolution method for imaging below the skin using a liquid lens (February 20, 2011) -- New optical technology provides unprecedented images under the skin's surface. The aim of the technology is to detect and examine skin lesions to determine whether they are benign or cancerous without having to cut the suspected tumor out of the skin and analyze it in the lab. ... > full story

Deep brain stimulation helps severe OCD, but pioneer advises caution (February 20, 2011) -- For patients most severely afflicted with obsessive-compulsive disorder, electrical stimulation of a brain network can re-balance their emotional state, helping them respond to conventional therapy when it never worked before. New long-term results show that patients' improvements remain if the treatment continues. But, as with other OCD treatments, DBS is not a cure and can have side effects. ... > full story

Climate projections show human health impacts possible within 30 years: Potential increases in waterborne toxins and microbes (February 20, 2011) -- A panel of scientists unveiled new research and models demonstrating how climate change could increase exposure and risk of human illness originating from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes ecosystems, with some studies projecting impacts to be felt within 30 years. ... > full story

Only one person out of over 1,900 met AHA's definition of ideal heart health, study finds (February 20, 2011) -- Only one out of more than 1,900 people evaluated in a recent study met the American Heart Association definition of ideal cardiovascular health, according to researchers. ... > full story

Depression symptoms increase over time for addiction-prone women (February 20, 2011) -- While alcohol problems and antisocial behavior tend to decrease in women as they age, depression increases, a new study finds. ... > full story

Family planning programs have success in developing countries but need to be expanded, expert argues (February 20, 2011) -- While many researchers generally credit the desire for smaller families for the decline in fertility rates in developing, low-income countries, new research suggests that prevention of unwanted births may actually be a larger factor. The advent of safe and more effective birth control means that people have better control of when and if they have children, says one expert. ... > full story

Water, water, everywhere ... but is it safe to drink? (February 20, 2011) -- New research examines society's efforts to reverse and stop groundwater pollution, and the effectiveness of bioremediation technologies -- using microbes to clean up organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons (oil, gasoline or diesel) or chemicals used in the electronics or transportation industries. ... > full story

Asthma tied to bacterial communities in the airway (February 19, 2011) -- Asthma may have a surprising relationship with the composition of the species of bacteria that inhabit bronchial airways, a finding that could suggest new treatment or even potential cures for the common inflammatory disease, according to a new study. ... > full story

Mind over matter: EECoG may finally allow enduring control of a prosthetic or a paralyzed arm by thought alone (February 19, 2011) -- A biomedical engineer is developing brain-computer interfaces based on grids of electrodes that lie beneath the skull but outside the dura mater, the protective membrane that covers the brain. His next project is to slip a thin 32-electrode grid he designed with a colleague under a macaque's skill and to train the monkey to control -- strictly by thinking about it -- a computational model of a macaque arm. ... > full story

Efficacy of tuberculosis vaccine enhanced thanks to new research (February 19, 2011) -- Researchers in Belgium have improved the efficacy of the vaccine for tuberculosis. The new vaccine affords, as already demonstrated in mice, better protection against the disease. The development of a new tuberculosis vaccine is a priority in the fight against the disease, which claims the lives of 1.7 million people each year. The current vaccine provides only partial protection. ... > full story

Women are better at forgiving, Spanish study finds (February 19, 2011) -- A new study into the emotional differences between the sexes and generations in terms of forgiveness has found that parents forgive more than children, while women are better at forgiving than men. ... > full story

Conventional wisdom of how neurons operate challenged: Axons can work in reverse (February 19, 2011) -- Neurons are complicated, but the basic functional concept is that synapses transmit electrical signals to the dendrites and cell body, and axons carry signals away. In one of many surprise findings, scientists have discovered that axons can operate in reverse: they can send signals to the cell body, too. They also found axons can talk to each other and that neural computations performed in axons are thousands of times slower than those occurring in dendrites. ... > full story

Research predicts future evolution of flu viruses (February 19, 2011) -- New research is beginning to crack the code of which strain of flu will be prevalent in a given year, with major implications for global public health preparedness. ... > full story

Augmented reality system for learning chess (February 19, 2011) -- Students in Spain have designed an innovative augmented reality system for learning to play chess. The system architecture, which combines augmented reality, computer vision and artificial intelligence, includes an application that tracks the movements of each piece, generates an audible description of each move, saves games automatically and can broadcast matches online, making it ideal for a wide range of users, including the visually impaired. ... > full story

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