Senin, 21 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Monday, February 21, 2011

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Floating spores kill malaria mosquito larvae (February 21, 2011) -- There are over 200 million cases of malaria each year and, in 2009, malaria was responsible for 781,000 deaths worldwide. Malaria is spread by mosquitoes which breed in open water and spend much of their larval stage feeding on fungi and microorganisms at the water surface. New research presents a method of dispersing pathogenic fungi as a means of preventing the spread of malaria. ... > full story

Common hip disorder can cause sports hernia (February 21, 2011) -- Sports hernias are commonly found in individuals with a mechanical disorder of the hip and can be resolved with surgery to fix the hip disorder alone in some cases, according to a recent study. ... > full story

Callous-unemotional traits, conduct problems in children can lead to antisocial behavior in pre-teens (February 21, 2011) -- Researchers stress the importance of callous-unemotional traits in identifying children at risk of antisocial behavior and other adjustment problems. ... > full story

Trichinosis parasite gets DNA decoded (February 21, 2011) -- Scientists have decoded the DNA of the parasitic worm that causes trichinosis, a disease linked to eating raw or undercooked pork or carnivorous wild game animals, such as bear and walrus. ... > full story

Personalized medicine comes within reach (February 21, 2011) -- A team of biologists, clinical oncologists, pathologists and information scientists has established a strategy for identifying biomarkers. If a particular pattern of these biomarkers can be detected in the blood, this indicates a cancerous disease. An interdisciplinary research breakthrough that opens many doors. ... > full story

Groundbreaking technology will revolutionize blood pressure measurement (February 21, 2011) -- Pioneering new technology will lead to better treatment decisions and better outcomes for patients, researchers say. ... > full story

Large study of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair reveals some surprises (February 21, 2011) -- Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is highly effective and provides durable results five years after surgery, according to a large, prospective study. The study also surprisingly revealed that the rotator cuff has the ability to heal even when early imaging studies have found a defect at the site of repair. ... > full story

Look after your brain (February 21, 2011) -- As the average life span becomes longer, dementia becomes more common. Swedish scientists have shown that everyone can minimize his or her risk of being affected. Factors from blood pressure and weight to the degree of physical and mental activity can influence cognitive functioning as one gets older. ... > full story

Stretching before a run does not necessarily prevent injury, study finds (February 20, 2011) -- Stretching before a run neither prevents nor causes injury, according to a new study. However, runners who typically stretch as part of their pre-run routine and were randomized not to stretch during the study period were far more likely to have an injury. ... > full story

Why innocent suspects may confess to a crime (February 20, 2011) -- Why would anyone falsely confess to a crime they didn't commit? It seems illogical, but according to The Innocence Project, there have been 266 post-conviction DNA exonerations since 1989 -- 25 percent of which involved a false confession. A new study may shed light on one reason for those false confessions. ... > full story

Role of helmets in reducing skull fractures incurred by children in skiing and snowboarding accidents (February 20, 2011) -- New research reviews skull fractures incurred by young skiers and snowboarders and the role helmets play in reducing these head injuries. Severe head trauma is the most frequent cause of death and severe disability in skiers and snowboarders and accounts for about 15 percent of all skiing and snowboarding related injuries. Although helmet use is apparently increasing, it remains far from universal. Researchers found compelling evidence that skull fractures sustained by children in skiing and snowboarding pose serious risk. ... > full story

Universal flu vaccine study yields success in mice (February 20, 2011) -- Researchers have taken a step closer to the development of a universal flu vaccine, with results of a recent study showing that a vaccine delivered by a simple nasal spray could provide protection against influenza. ... > full story

Anti-aging hormone Klotho may prevent complications in chronic kidney disease, research suggests (February 20, 2011) -- Low levels of the anti-aging hormone Klotho may serve as an early warning sign of the presence of kidney disease and its deadly cardiovascular complications, according to new findings. ... > full story

Infants raised in bilingual environments can distinguish unfamiliar languages (February 20, 2011) -- Infants raised in households where Spanish and Catalan are spoken can discriminate between English and French just by watching people speak, even though they have never been exposed to these new languages before, according to new research. ... > full story

New high-resolution method for imaging below the skin using a liquid lens (February 20, 2011) -- New optical technology provides unprecedented images under the skin's surface. The aim of the technology is to detect and examine skin lesions to determine whether they are benign or cancerous without having to cut the suspected tumor out of the skin and analyze it in the lab. ... > full story

Deep brain stimulation helps severe OCD, but pioneer advises caution (February 20, 2011) -- For patients most severely afflicted with obsessive-compulsive disorder, electrical stimulation of a brain network can re-balance their emotional state, helping them respond to conventional therapy when it never worked before. New long-term results show that patients' improvements remain if the treatment continues. But, as with other OCD treatments, DBS is not a cure and can have side effects. ... > full story

Climate projections show human health impacts possible within 30 years: Potential increases in waterborne toxins and microbes (February 20, 2011) -- A panel of scientists unveiled new research and models demonstrating how climate change could increase exposure and risk of human illness originating from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes ecosystems, with some studies projecting impacts to be felt within 30 years. ... > full story

Only one person out of over 1,900 met AHA's definition of ideal heart health, study finds (February 20, 2011) -- Only one out of more than 1,900 people evaluated in a recent study met the American Heart Association definition of ideal cardiovascular health, according to researchers. ... > full story

Depression symptoms increase over time for addiction-prone women (February 20, 2011) -- While alcohol problems and antisocial behavior tend to decrease in women as they age, depression increases, a new study finds. ... > full story

Family planning programs have success in developing countries but need to be expanded, expert argues (February 20, 2011) -- While many researchers generally credit the desire for smaller families for the decline in fertility rates in developing, low-income countries, new research suggests that prevention of unwanted births may actually be a larger factor. The advent of safe and more effective birth control means that people have better control of when and if they have children, says one expert. ... > full story

Water, water, everywhere ... but is it safe to drink? (February 20, 2011) -- New research examines society's efforts to reverse and stop groundwater pollution, and the effectiveness of bioremediation technologies -- using microbes to clean up organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons (oil, gasoline or diesel) or chemicals used in the electronics or transportation industries. ... > full story

Asthma tied to bacterial communities in the airway (February 19, 2011) -- Asthma may have a surprising relationship with the composition of the species of bacteria that inhabit bronchial airways, a finding that could suggest new treatment or even potential cures for the common inflammatory disease, according to a new study. ... > full story

Mind over matter: EECoG may finally allow enduring control of a prosthetic or a paralyzed arm by thought alone (February 19, 2011) -- A biomedical engineer is developing brain-computer interfaces based on grids of electrodes that lie beneath the skull but outside the dura mater, the protective membrane that covers the brain. His next project is to slip a thin 32-electrode grid he designed with a colleague under a macaque's skill and to train the monkey to control -- strictly by thinking about it -- a computational model of a macaque arm. ... > full story

Efficacy of tuberculosis vaccine enhanced thanks to new research (February 19, 2011) -- Researchers in Belgium have improved the efficacy of the vaccine for tuberculosis. The new vaccine affords, as already demonstrated in mice, better protection against the disease. The development of a new tuberculosis vaccine is a priority in the fight against the disease, which claims the lives of 1.7 million people each year. The current vaccine provides only partial protection. ... > full story

Women are better at forgiving, Spanish study finds (February 19, 2011) -- A new study into the emotional differences between the sexes and generations in terms of forgiveness has found that parents forgive more than children, while women are better at forgiving than men. ... > full story

Conventional wisdom of how neurons operate challenged: Axons can work in reverse (February 19, 2011) -- Neurons are complicated, but the basic functional concept is that synapses transmit electrical signals to the dendrites and cell body, and axons carry signals away. In one of many surprise findings, scientists have discovered that axons can operate in reverse: they can send signals to the cell body, too. They also found axons can talk to each other and that neural computations performed in axons are thousands of times slower than those occurring in dendrites. ... > full story

Research predicts future evolution of flu viruses (February 19, 2011) -- New research is beginning to crack the code of which strain of flu will be prevalent in a given year, with major implications for global public health preparedness. ... > full story

Augmented reality system for learning chess (February 19, 2011) -- Students in Spain have designed an innovative augmented reality system for learning to play chess. The system architecture, which combines augmented reality, computer vision and artificial intelligence, includes an application that tracks the movements of each piece, generates an audible description of each move, saves games automatically and can broadcast matches online, making it ideal for a wide range of users, including the visually impaired. ... > full story

Scheduled deliveries raise risks for mothers, do not benefit newborns, study finds (February 19, 2011) -- Inducing labor without a medical reason is associated with negative outcomes for the mother, including increased rates of cesarean delivery, greater blood loss and an extended length of stay in the hospital, and does not provide any benefit for the newborn, according to a new study. As the number of scheduled deliveries continues to climb, it is important for physicians and mothers-to-be to understand the risks associated with elective induction. The new findings only apply to women having their first child, and may not pertain to women having their second or third child. ... > full story

How couples recover after an argument stems from their infant relationships (February 19, 2011) -- When studying relationships, psychological scientists have often focused on how couples fight. But how they recover from a fight is important, too. According to a new study, couples' abilities to bounce back from conflict may depend on what both partners were like as infants. ... > full story

Study shows young patients may benefit from microfracture knee procedures (February 19, 2011) -- Surgical treatment using microfracture for pediatric knee injury repair may improve activity outcomes, according to new research. The study shows patients are able to regain function and return to a normal activity level following surgery and rehabilitation ... > full story

Hamstring grafts prove more effective in ACL knee reconstruction, study says (February 19, 2011) -- Patients receiving anterior cruciate ligament knee reconstruction with a hamstring tendon graft rather than a knee tendon graft were less likely to suffer from pain and mobility issues 15 years after surgery, say researchers. ... > full story

Misguided public perception on what Tommy John surgery can do apparent in new study (February 19, 2011) -- Despite known risks and outcomes of the common elbow procedure known as Tommy John surgery, parents, coaches and players still have incorrect assumptions regarding player performance, say researchers. ... > full story

Weight loss improves knee pain from common arthritic condition, study says (February 19, 2011) -- Knee pain related to osteoarthritis is a common complaint among obese individuals and retired professional athletes, especially former NFL players, but researchers presenting their work at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Specialty Day program (Feb. 19) say they have a simple solution: lose weight. ... > full story

Fountain of youth from the tap? Environmental lithium uptake promotes longevity, scientists demonstrate (February 18, 2011) -- A regular uptake of the trace element lithium can considerably promote longevity, suggests new research by scientists in Germany. The researchers have demonstrated by two independent approaches that even a low concentration of lithium leads to an increased life expectancy in humans as well as in a model organism, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. ... > full story

Study links hypoxia and inflammation in many diseases (February 18, 2011) -- When the body is deprived of oxygen during a major surgery, the kidneys, heart muscles or lungs can be injured as a result. Yet the body can adapt to low oxygen. Understanding how can lead to cures. New research explores the relationship between lack of oxygen, called hypoxia, and the inflammation that can injure or kill some patients who undergo surgery. In a liver transplant, for example, the surgery and anesthesiology can go perfectly yet the new liver will fail because of hypoxia. ... > full story

Scientists bioengineer a protein to fight leukemia (February 18, 2011) -- Scientists have announced a breakthrough discovery in understanding how the body fights leukemia. They have identified a protein called CD19-ligand located on the surface of certain white blood cells that facilitates the recognition and destruction of leukemia cells by the immune system. This work represents the first report of a bioengineered version of CD19-L, a recombinant human biotherapeutic agent, targeting CD19-positive leukemic stem cells. ... > full story

Value of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest confirmed by new research (February 18, 2011) -- Researchers confirmed that patients who receive therapeutic hypothermia after resuscitation from cardiac arrest have favorable chances of surviving the event and recovering good functional status. In therapeutic hypothermia, a patient's body temperature is cooled to 33 degrees Celsius following resuscitation from cardiac arrest, in order to slow the brain's metabolism and protect the brain against the damage initiated by the lack of blood flow and oxygenation. ... > full story

High-caffeine-consuming boys get greater rush from caffeine than girls (February 18, 2011) -- Among the many differences between girls and boys, add the effects from caffeine -- physiological, behavioral and subjective -- to the list. ... > full story

Brain function linked to birth size; Study sheds light on mental health problems later in life (February 18, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered the first evidence linking brain function variations between the left and right sides of the brain to size at birth and the weight of the placenta. The finding could shed new light on the causes of mental health problems in later life. ... > full story

Identification of glaucoma gene brightens view for future therapies (February 18, 2011) -- Glaucoma -- a leading cause of vision loss and blindness worldwide -- runs in families. A team of investigators has identified a new candidate gene for the most common form of the eye disorder, primary open angle glaucoma. The findings offer novel insights into glaucoma pathology and could lead to targeted treatment strategies. ... > full story

Reverse genetics allow scientists to slow spread of Rubella virus (February 18, 2011) -- Scientists have identified the gene that allows the Rubella virus to block cell death and reverse engineered a mutant gene that slows the virus's spread. Researchers believed that RNA viruses were able to spread by blocking the pathways in cells that lead to cell suicide, and isolated the responsible gene in Rubella, also known as German measles. ... > full story

Children in public housing play outdoors more (February 18, 2011) -- Young children living in urban public housing spend more time playing outdoors than other urban children, according to researchers. ... > full story

Male fertility is in the bones: First evidence that skeleton plays a role in reproduction (February 18, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered that the skeleton acts as a regulator of fertility in male mice through a hormone released by bone, known as osteocalcin. ... > full story

Chemical guided missile could be the answer to wiping out cancer (February 18, 2011) -- Medical scientists in Australia have created the world's first cancer stem cell-targeting chemical missile, placing them a step closer to creating a medical 'smart bomb' that would seek out and eradicate the root of cancer cells. ... > full story

Portable pedal machines may help counter harmful effects of sedentary jobs (February 18, 2011) -- Portable pedal machines could help counter the harmful effects of prolonged periods spent at a desk or workstation among an increasingly sedentary workforce, suggests a small study published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. ... > full story

The real avatar: Swiss researchers use virtual reality and brain imaging to hunt for the science of the self (February 18, 2011) -- That feeling of being in, and owning, your own body is a fundamental human experience. Now, researchers have announced an important step in decoding the phenomenon. By combining techniques from cognitive science with those of virtual reality and brain imaging, scientists in Switzerland are narrowing in on the first experimental, data-driven approach to understanding self-consciousness. ... > full story

Benefits of electrical stimulation therapy found with people paralyzed by spinal cord injury (February 18, 2011) -- A new treatment approach which uses tiny bursts of electricity to reawaken paralyzed muscles "significantly" reduced disability and improved grasping in people with incomplete spinal cord injuries, beyond the effects of standard therapy, new research shows. ... > full story

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