Senin, 28 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Monday, February 28, 2011

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Brain's 'reward' center also responds to bad experiences (February 28, 2011) -- The so-called reward center of the brain may need a new name, say scientists who have shown it responds to good and bad experiences. The finding may help explain the "thrill" of thrill-seeking behavior or maybe just the thrill of surviving it, according to scientists. ... > full story

Why chemotherapy causes more infertility in women than in men (February 28, 2011) -- For a long time a relationship between infertility and chemotherapeutic agents has been assumed. Now, the mechanism has been elucidated. Mainly women are affected because the quality control in the oocytes is different from male germ cells. As biosicentists in Germany have found out, tetramer and dimer structures in the p53 protein family play a key role. ... > full story

Shining a light on trypanosome reproduction (February 28, 2011) -- Compelling visual evidence of sexual reproduction in African trypanosomes, single-celled parasites that cause major human and animal diseases, has been found. ... > full story

Ultrasound fusion imaging provides comparable accuracy for bone, soft tissue tumors (February 28, 2011) -- Biopsies using ultrasound fusion imaging for detecting bone and soft tissue cancers are safe, effective and just as accurate as conventional biopsy methods, according to a new study. ... > full story

Stress and tension do not stop fertility treatment from working, study finds (February 28, 2011) -- Women undergoing IVF or other assisted reproduction therapy can be reassured that emotional distress caused by their infertility or other life events will not prevent the treatment from working, according to new research. ... > full story

Markedly higher vitamin D intake needed to reduce cancer risk, researchers say (February 28, 2011) -- Researchers have reported that markedly higher intake of vitamin D is needed to reach blood levels that can prevent or markedly cut the incidence of breast cancer and several other major diseases than had been originally thought. ... > full story

Novel methods for improved breast cancer survival (February 28, 2011) -- A quarter of all women who suffer from breast cancer are at risk of metastasis – a recurrence of the cancer. In recent years, researchers have developed a technique that can identify in advance which patients belong to this risk group. Within the next two years the method will be tested in Swedish hospitals. In the future, the technique may also be used in hospitals in other countries. ... > full story

Meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis disseminates itself by sending out 'scouts' (February 28, 2011) -- Although, in the majority of cases, the localized presence of Neisseria meningitidis in the throat has no consequence, it can sometimes lead to meningitis or septicaemia. Scientists have recently discovered how this bacterium disseminates, leaving the throat to pass into the bloodstream. ... > full story

Hip, thigh implants can raise bone fracture risk in children (February 28, 2011) -- Children with hip and thigh implants designed to help heal a broken bone or correct other bone conditions are at risk for subsequent fractures of the very bones that the implants were intended to treat, according to new research. ... > full story

Strong link found between victimization, substance abuse (February 28, 2011) -- A strong link between victimization experiences and substance abuse has been discovered by researchers. ... > full story

PCBs may affect in vitro fertilization outcomes (February 27, 2011) -- Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at concentrations found in the general U.S. population are associated with the failure of fertilized embryos to implant in the uterus after in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study may help explain earlier reports of impaired reproduction and increased time to pregnancy among women exposed to PCBs. ... > full story

‘Round-the-clock’ lifestyle could disrupt metabolism, brain and behavior (February 27, 2011) -- In Civilization and Its Discontents, Sigmund Freud argued that modern society was hard on human psychology, forcing people to get along in unnaturally close quarters. Now newly published research points out a different discontent in the developed world, namely, the disruption of our natural sleep cycles, thanks to the ubiquity of electric lighting. Experiments on mice found that throwing off their evolutionarily ancient circadian rhythms by artificially altering the length of their days has a substantial impact on the body and the brain. The work suggests that our modern, round-the-clock lifestyle could disrupt metabolism, interfere with learning and impact behavior in ways that we're just beginning to understand. ... > full story

Home urine test measures insulin production in diabetes (February 27, 2011) -- A simple home urine test has been developed which can measure if patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are producing their own insulin. The urine test replaces multiple blood tests in hospital and can be sent by post as it is stable for up to three days at room temperature. Avoiding blood tests will be a particular advantage for children. ... > full story

Bisphenol A exposures lower in Canadians compared to Americans (February 27, 2011) -- Health Canada's declaration that bisphenol A is a health hazard makes it unique in the world, but it must now follow through with legislation to protect people from exposure. That's the conclusion of a new analysis that found concentrations of bisphenol A in Canadians are lower than for Americans, although the reason for the difference is unknown. ... > full story

Scientists find gene responsible for color patterns in mice (February 27, 2011) -- Scientists are moving closer to answering some age-old questions. How did the leopard get its spots? How did the zebra get its stripes? The answer may be a gene called Agouti, which the scientists have found governs color patterns in deer mice, the most widespread mammal in North America. ... > full story

Discovery of killer cells has potential for targeted cancer therapies (February 27, 2011) -- Scientists have made an important discovery concerning how fledgling cancer cells self-destruct, which has the potential of impacting on future cancer therapies. ... > full story

Heparin a key role player in allergy and inflammatory reactions (February 27, 2011) -- Heparin plays a key role in allergic and inflammatory reactions driven by mast cells, scientists show. The study sheds some new light on the biological function of heparin. ... > full story

High-quality care associated with lower cost in trauma (February 27, 2011) -- High-quality hospitals deliver lower-cost care to trauma patients, according to new research. The study found high-quality hospitals have death rates that are 34 percent lower, while spending nearly 22 percent less on trauma patient care than average-quality hospitals, suggesting high quality can coexist with lower cost. The reason is not clear, though. ... > full story

Placebo effect works both ways: Beliefs about pain levels appear to override effects of potent pain-relieving drug (February 27, 2011) -- Poor expectations of treatment can override all the effect of a potent pain-relieving drug, a brain imaging study has shown. In contrast, positive expectations of treatment doubled the natural physiological or biochemical effect of the opioid drug among the healthy volunteers in the study. ... > full story

Protein and microRNA block cellular transition vital to metastasis (February 27, 2011) -- Like a bounty hunter returning escapees to custody, a cancer-fighting gene converts organ cells that change into highly mobile stem cells back to their original, stationary state, researchers report. ... > full story

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can affect quality of life even when thyroid gland function is normal (February 27, 2011) -- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), an inflammatory disorder of the thyroid, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, but a study has suggested that even when thyroid function is normal, HT may increase symptoms and decrease quality of life. ... > full story

Planning and visualization lead to better food habits (February 27, 2011) -- If you want to improve the way you eat, the best way to do so is to both make an action plan and visualize yourself carrying it out, according to researchers. ... > full story

Transgenic fungi may be able to combat malaria and other bug-borne diseases (February 26, 2011) -- New findings indicate that a genetically engineered fungus carrying genes for a human anti-malarial antibody or a scorpion anti-malarial toxin could be a highly effective, specific and environmentally friendly tool for combating malaria, at a time when the effectiveness of current pesticides against malaria mosquitoes is declining. ... > full story

New technology pinpoints genetic differences between cancer and non-cancer patients (February 26, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a new technology that detects distinct genetic changes differentiating cancer patients from healthy individuals and could serve as a future cancer predisposition test. ... > full story

Bone drug zoledronic acid may help prevent spread of early lung cancer (February 26, 2011) -- A drug that is currently used to help treat bone metastases in patients with lung cancer could also be useful at an earlier stage of treatment, to prevent the cancer from spreading in the first place, researchers have found. ... > full story

Making the 'irrelevant' relevant to understand memory and aging (February 26, 2011) -- Age alters memory. But in what ways, and why? These questions comprise a vast puzzle for neurologists and psychologists. A new study looked at one puzzle piece: how older and younger adults encode and recall distracting, or irrelevant, information. The results can help scientists better understand memory and aging. ... > full story

Nanotechnology may lead to new treatment of liver cancer (February 26, 2011) -- Nanotechnology may open a new door on the treatment of liver cancer, according to researchers. They used molecular-sized bubbles filled with chemotherapy drugs to prevent cell growth and initiate cell death in test tubes and mice. ... > full story

Tweeting teenage songbirds reveal impact of social cues on learning (February 26, 2011) -- In a finding that once again displays the power of the female, neuroscientists have discovered that teenage male songbirds, still working to perfect their song, improve their performance in the presence of a female bird. ... > full story

Model for managing asthma in preschoolers leads to dramatic drop in ER visits and hospitalizations (February 26, 2011) -- Nearly one in 11 preschool children in the US has been diagnosed with asthma, yet few asthma management programs are designed for parents of preschool children. A new program offers educational activities to families as well as training to community pediatric providers. Following participation in the program, 85 percent of parents reported reducing their child's asthma triggers; visits to ER departments declined sharply, as did asthma-related hospitalizations. ... > full story

Happy children make happy adults (February 26, 2011) -- Being a "happy" teenager is linked to increased well-being in adulthood, new research finds. ... > full story

Targeting T cells effectively blocks multiple sclerosis in mice (February 25, 2011) -- In an effort to develop therapeutic remedies for multiple sclerosis, scientists debate two possible interventional approaches -- but they're on opposite sides of the spectrum. Researchers however, think they have now reached a definitive conclusion as to which approach is correct, putting an end to a long-disputed issue. They found that targeting white blood cells of the immune system known as T cells is the effective approach to block the disease in an animal model of MS. ... > full story

Scientists find a new way insulin-producing cells die (February 25, 2011) -- Diabetes researchers discover another way that insulin-secreting beta cells in the pancreas can be destroyed -- by the secretions of neighboring alpha cells. ... > full story

Staring contests are automatic: People lock eyes to establish dominance (February 25, 2011) -- Imagine that you're in a bar and you accidentally knock over your neighbor's beer. He turns around and stares at you, looking for confrontation. Do you buy him a new drink, or do you try to out-stare him to make him back off? New research suggests that the dominance behavior exhibited by staring someone down can be reflexive. ... > full story

Newborn heart muscle can grow back by itself, study shows (February 25, 2011) -- In a promising science-fiction-meets-real-world juxtaposition, researchers have discovered that the mammalian newborn heart can heal itself completely. ... > full story

Low vitamin D levels linked to allergies in kids (February 25, 2011) -- A study of more than 3,000 children shows that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased likelihood that children will develop allergies, according to a new article. ... > full story

Simpler way of making proteins could lead to new nanomedicine agents (February 25, 2011) -- Researchers have developed a simple method of making short protein chains with spiral structures that can also dissolve in water, two desirable traits not often found together. The researchers observed that as they increased the length of the side chains with charges on the end, the polypeptides' propensity for forming helices also increased. Such structures could have applications as building blocks for self-assembling nanostructures and as agents for drug and gene delivery. ... > full story

HIV makes protein that may help virus's resurgence (February 25, 2011) -- New research enhances the current knowledge of how human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which causes AIDS, controls the cell cycle of cells that it infects. The new findings may shed light on how the virus reactivates after entering a dormant state, called latency. Better understanding of the biological events that revive HIV from latency may eventually lead to better treatments for people with HIV infection. ... > full story

Redesign of US donor-liver network could boost transplants by several hundred per year (February 25, 2011) -- Researchers redesigned the U.S.'s haphazard donor-liver distribution network to better account for urban and rural population differences, geographic distance, and the anticipated supply of and demand for donor livers. They calculated a rearrangement could result in up to 14 percent more people each year receiving the transplants they need. ... > full story

Obesity and diabetes are a downside of human evolution, research suggests (February 25, 2011) -- As if the recent prediction that half of Americans will have diabetes or pre-diabetes by the year 2020 isn't alarming, a new genetic discovery provides a disturbing explanation as to why: we took an evolutionary "wrong turn." In the report, scientists show that human evolution leading to the loss of function in a gene called "CMAH" may make humans more prone to obesity and diabetes than other mammals. ... > full story

New long-acting local anesthetic derived from algae effectively blocks pain in surgical patients (February 25, 2011) -- Medical researchers bringing surgical patients closer to having a long-acting local anesthetic. In a randomized, double-blind trial, patients given neosaxitoxin, a new local anesthetic derived from algae, had significantly less postoperative pain and recovered about two days sooner than those given the commonly used local anesthetic bupivacaine. ... > full story

Multiple childbirth linked to increased risk of rare, aggressive 'triple-negative' breast cancer (February 25, 2011) -- Full-term pregnancy has long been associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, but a new study finds that the more times a woman gives birth, the higher her risk of "triple-negative" breast cancer, a relatively uncommon but particularly aggressive subtype of the disease. Conversely, women who never give birth have a 40 percent lower risk of such breast cancer. ... > full story

Chemical compounds in trees can fight deadly staph infections in humans (February 25, 2011) -- A research team has found an antibiotic in the Eastern Red Cedar tree that is effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a "superbug" that is resistant to most medications. ... > full story

Maternal fructose intake impacts female and male fetuses differently (February 25, 2011) -- Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy results in sex-specific changes in fetal and neonatal endocrinology. The study also found that maternal fructose consumption may effect placental development. ... > full story

Stereotypes can deter consumer purchases (February 25, 2011) -- The perception of negative stereotyping, particularly in the areas of financial services and automobile sales and service, can cause consumers to fear being duped and forgo their purchases, according to new research. Researchers also found that the scent of vanilla helps consumers feel calmer and more assured of their transaction. ... > full story

Premature aging replicated in the lab (February 25, 2011) -- The current pace of population aging is without parallel in human history but surprisingly little is known about the human aging process, because lifespans of eight decades or more make it difficult to study. Now, researchers have replicated premature aging in the lab, allowing them to study aging-related disease in a dish. ... > full story

Menopausal hot flashes may be a good sign for heart (February 25, 2011) -- A new study finds women who suffer from hot flashes when they begin menopause are at lower risk for cardiovascular events. ... > full story

Fatty liver may herald impending Type 2 diabetes (February 25, 2011) -- Individuals with fatty liver were five times more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes than those without fatty liver. This higher risk seemed to occur regardless of the patient's fasting insulin levels, which were used as a marker of insulin resistance. ... > full story

Producing clean water in an emergency (February 25, 2011) -- Chemistry researchers have taken a key step towards making a cheap, portable, paper-based filter coated with silver nanoparticles to be used in emergency situations like floods, tsunamis or earthquakes. ... > full story

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