Selasa, 15 Maret 2011

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for Tuesday, March 15, 2011

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Neanderthals were nifty at controlling fire (March 15, 2011) -- A new study shows clear evidence of the continuous control of fire by Neanderthals in Europe dating back roughly 400,000 years, yet another indication that they weren't dimwitted brutes as often portrayed. But Neanderthal predecessors pushed into cold regions of Europe at least 800,000 years ago without the use of fire. ... > full story

Vitamin D insufficiency high among patients with early Parkinson disease (March 15, 2011) -- Patients with a recent onset of Parkinson disease have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, but vitamin D concentrations do not appear to decline during the progression of the disease, according to a new study. ... > full story

Extent and speed of lionfish spread unprecedented; Invasive marine fish may stress reefs (March 15, 2011) -- The rapid spread of lionfishes along the U.S. eastern seaboard, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean is the first documented case of a non-native marine fish establishing a self-sustaining population in the region, according to recent studies. ... > full story

Use of generic drug programs could save society billions of dollars, U.S. study shows (March 15, 2011) -- If all eligible patients filled their prescriptions through a generic drug program, the societal savings could amount to nearly billion, according to new U.S. study. It is the first to evaluate the potential national savings from a broad use of the discounted generic medication programs that are available at many retail stores' pharmacies. ... > full story

Hawaii: New high-resolution carbon mapping techniques provide more accurate results (March 15, 2011) -- Scientists have developed new, more accurate methods for mapping carbon in Hawaii's forests. ... > full story

Native trout fare best when dams use natural stream flow management practices (March 15, 2011) -- Natural stream flow suits native trout populations best, according to a new study that is the first to examine the impacts of dam operations on threatened freshwater trout. ... > full story

How the slime mold gets organized (March 15, 2011) -- The so-called cellular slime mold, a unicellular organism that may transition into a multicellular organism under stress, has just been found to have a tissue structure that was previously thought to exist only in more sophisticated animals. What's more, two proteins that are needed by the slime mold to form this structure are similar to those that perform the same function in more sophistical animals. ... > full story

Heavy drinking associated with increased risk of death from pancreatic cancer (March 15, 2011) -- Heavy alcohol consumption, specifically three or more glasses of liquor a day, is associated with an increased risk of death from pancreatic cancer, according to a new report. ... > full story

New desalination process developed using carbon nanotubes (March 15, 2011) -- A faster, better and cheaper desalination process enhanced by carbon nanotubes has just been developed. The process creates a unique new architecture for the membrane distillation process by immobilizing carbon nanotubes in the membrane pores. Conventional approaches to desalination are thermal distillation and reverse osmosis. ... > full story

Guided care reduces the use of health services by chronically ill older adults (March 15, 2011) -- New report shows that older people who receive Guided Care, a new form of primary care, use fewer expensive health services compared to older people who receive regular primary care. ... > full story

Gulf oil spill: Airborne chemistry measurements assess flow rate, fate of spilled gases and oil (March 15, 2011) -- Scientists have found a way to use air chemistry measurements taken hundreds of feet above last year's BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill to estimate how fast gases and oil were leaking from the reservoir thousands of feet underwater. The scientists also determined the fate of most of those gas and oil compounds using atmospheric chemistry data collected from the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft overflights in June. ... > full story

Painkiller prescribing varies dramatically among family physicians (March 15, 2011) -- Some physicians are prescribing opioids such as OxyContin 55 times as often as others, according to a new study. The study found most opioid-related deaths occur among patients treated by physicians who frequently prescribe opioids, suggesting doctors who prescribe a lot of opioids may not be doing so safely. ... > full story

'Fly tree of life' mapped, adds big branch of evolutionary knowledge (March 14, 2011) -- Calling it the "new periodic table for flies," researchers around the globe have mapped the evolutionary history of flies, providing a framework for further comparative studies on the insects that comprise more than 10 percent of all life on Earth. ... > full story

Key mutations act cooperatively to fuel aggressive brain tumor (March 14, 2011) -- Mutations in three pathways important for suppressing tumors cooperate to launch glioblastoma, an aggressive brain tumor that strikes children and adults. But new research shows those changes alone are not sufficient to cause cancer. Tumor formation requires additional mutations, some affecting different points in the same disrupted regulatory pathways. ... > full story

Lessons from Japan's earthquake (March 14, 2011) -- While Japan's 8.9-magnitude earthquake and accompanying tsunami represent a devastating natural disaster for the country's residents, scientists should also seize upon the massive temblor as an important learning tool for future quakes around the world, including the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States, according to U.S. experts. ... > full story

Early success of anti-HIV preventive oral drug regimen is promising, but questions remain (March 14, 2011) -- The first human studies of an oral drug regimen to prevent HIV infection in high-risk individuals yielded a promising near 50 percent reduction in HIV incidence, but a number of issues require additional research before oral pre-exposure prophylaxis can be implemented on a large scale, according to an article in AIDS Patient Care and STDs, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert Inc. ... > full story

New method could improve economics of sweetening natural gas (March 14, 2011) -- Battelle's Antisolvent Swing Regeneration system could make tapping extremely sour gas reserves more economically friendly by drastically reducing the amount of heat needed to remove rotten-egg smelling hydrogen sulfide from natural gas sweetening process. ... > full story

Gender stereotypes about math develop as early as second grade (March 14, 2011) -- Researchers report that children express the stereotype that mathematics is for boys, not for girls, as early as second grade, before gender differences in math achievement emerge. ... > full story

NASA's Hubble rules out one alternative to dark energy (March 14, 2011) -- Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have ruled out an alternate theory on the nature of dark energy after recalculating the expansion rate of the universe to unprecedented accuracy. ... > full story

Toxoplasmosis: The strain explains severity of infection (March 14, 2011) -- Providing clues into why the severity of a common parasitic infection can vary greatly from person to person, a new study shows that each one of three strains of the cat-borne parasite Toxoplasma gondii sets off a unique reaction in the nerve cells it invades. ... > full story

Solar power systems could lighten the load for British soldiers (March 14, 2011) -- A revolutionary type of personal power pack now in development could help troops when they are engaged on the battlefield. With the aim of being up to 50 percent lighter than conventional chemical battery packs used by British infantry, the solar and thermoelectric-powered system could make an important contribution to future military operations. ... > full story

Benefits of bariatric surgery may outweigh risks for severely obese, study suggests (March 14, 2011) -- Bariatric surgery is a viable option for patients who are severely obese and are safe surgical candidates who have failed medical therapy for losing weight. When indicated, bariatric surgery often leads to long-term weight loss and significantly improved health. While there are risks, bariatric surgery is considered a relatively safe procedure, especially in centers that perform many of the procedures. ... > full story

Statistics can help us avoid counterfeit goods on the Internet, study shows (March 14, 2011) -- Consumers need to know the true perils of purchasing artwork or luxury goods on the Internet, say statisticians. ... > full story

Why people read magazines featuring envy-inspiring models (March 14, 2011) -- New research reveals why people read fitness and fashion magazines featuring photos of impossibly thin or muscular models -- models whose appearance highlight the readers' own flaws. Many previous studies have found that people who are unhappy with their physical appearance feel even more dissatisfied when they are shown photos of models who have "ideal" bodies. ... > full story

Arctic on the verge of record ozone loss (March 14, 2011) -- Unusually low temperatures in the Arctic ozone layer have recently initiated massive ozone depletion. The Arctic appears to be heading for a record loss of this trace gas that protects the Earth's surface against ultraviolet radiation from the sun. ... > full story

Antioxidants in pregnancy prevent obesity in animal offspring (March 14, 2011) -- New biological research may be relevant to the effects of a mother's high-fat diet during pregnancy on the development of obesity in her children. An animal study suggests that a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet causes oxidative stress -- an excess of deleterious free radicals -- during pregnancy, predisposing the offspring to obesity and diabetes. Feeding rats antioxidants before and during pregnancy completely prevented obesity and glucose intolerance in their offspring. ... > full story

Nanorods could greatly improve visual display of information (March 14, 2011) -- Chemists have developed tiny, nanoscale-size rods of iron oxide particles in the lab that respond to an external magnetic field by aligning themselves parallel to one another like a set of tiny flashlights turned in one direction, and displaying a brilliant color. The research paves the way for fabricating magnetically responsive photonic structures with significantly reduced dimensions so that color manipulation with higher resolution can be realized. ... > full story

Tumor suppressor blocks viral growth in natural HIV controllers (March 14, 2011) -- Elevated levels of p21, a protein best known as a cancer fighter, may be involved in the ability of a few individuals to control HIV infection with their immune system alone. In a new study, researchers report that CD4 T cells from HIV controllers show highly increased expression of the p21 protein, and while capable of being infected by HIV, effectively suppress key aspects of the viral life cycle. ... > full story

Japanese nuclear plants damaged by earthquake, tsunami pose no risk to U.S., experts say (March 14, 2011) -- Although the situation with damaged nuclear reactors in Japan is still uncertain, every hour without further incidents is good news, according to nuclear energy experts. And in any case, the events pose virtually no risk to people in the United States or Canada. ... > full story

Used woodwind and brass musical instruments harbor harmful bacteria and fungi, study suggests (March 14, 2011) -- Used woodwind and brass instruments were found to be heavily contaminated with a variety of bacteria and fungi, many of which are associated with minor to serious infectious and allergic diseases, according to a new study. ... > full story

Materials identified that may deliver more 'bounce' (March 14, 2011) -- Researchers have identified a class of high-strength metal alloys that show potential to make springs, sensors and switches smaller and more responsive. The alloys could be used in springier blood vessel stents, sensitive microphones, powerful loudspeakers, and components that boost the performance of medical imaging equipment, security systems and clean-burning gasoline and diesel engines. ... > full story

Salmonella bacteria used to fight cancer (March 14, 2011) -- Researchers are using salmonella -- the bacteria commonly transmitted through food that sickens thousands of US residents each year -- to do what was once unthinkable: help people. Researchers believe salmonella may be a valuable tool in the fight against cancer in organs surrounding the gut -- such as the liver, spleen, and colon -- since that's where salmonella naturally infects the body. ... > full story

Multiple taste cell sensors contribute to detecting sugars (March 14, 2011) -- A new research study dramatically increases knowledge of how taste cells detect sugars, a key step in developing strategies to limit overconsumption. Scientists have discovered that taste cells have several additional sugar detectors other than the previously known sweet receptor. ... > full story

Monitoring blood for 'microparticles' useful in identifying earliest signs of emphysema (March 14, 2011) -- Monitoring blood for tiny particles released by cells lining the lungs may help clinicians diagnose emphysema in its earliest stages, according to researchers. The particles, called endothelial microparticles, are shed during the disease process as tiny blood vessels in the lungs, called pulmonary capillaries, are injured and die. ... > full story

Marangoni convection in space: Observing wine-glass phenomenon in a gravity-free environment (March 14, 2011) -- What do a wine glass on Earth and an International Space Station experiment have in common? Well, observing the wine glass would be one of few ways to see and understand the experiment being performed in space. ... > full story

Thrill-seeking females work hard for their next fix, rat study suggests (March 14, 2011) -- It seems that women become addicted to cocaine more easily than men and find it harder to give up. New research reinforces this position by showing that the motivation of female rats to work for cocaine is much higher than males. ... > full story

Potential way to protect neurons in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, ALS (March 14, 2011) -- Neurons lacking a substance called caspase-2 were better able to withstand pesticide-induced damage to energy centers known as mitochondria, scientists have reported. This finding could have implications for development of therapeutics for conditions such as Parkinson's disease. ... > full story

Scientists discover genetic abnormalities after creation of stem cells (March 14, 2011) -- Scientists have identified genetic abnormalities associated with reprogramming adult cells to induced pluripotent stem cells. The findings give researchers new insights into the reprogramming process, and will help make future applications of stem cell creation and subsequent use safer. ... > full story

Unique frog helps amphibian conservation efforts (March 14, 2011) -- A tropical frog -- the only one of its kind in the world -- is providing conservationists with exclusive insights into the genetic make-up of its closest endangered relatives. ... > full story

'Good cholesterol' structure identified, could help explain protective effects (March 14, 2011) -- Researchers have determined the structure of human HDL cholesterol and say the finding could help explain how this "fat packet" protects against cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke. ... > full story

Computer model shows importance of feet, toes in body balance (March 14, 2011) -- Researchers are using a new model to learn more about how toe strength can determine how far people can lean while keeping their balance. The results could help in building robotic body parts that will closely imitate human movement, and might lead to a new generation of advanced prosthetics. ... > full story

Couples sometimes communicate no better than strangers (March 14, 2011) -- Married people may think they communicate well with their partners, but psychologists have found that they don't always convey messages to their loved ones as well as they think -- and in some cases, the spouses communicate no better than strangers. The same communication problem also is true with close friends. ... > full story

Miniature 'wearable' PET scanner: Simultaneous study of behavior and brain function in animals (March 14, 2011) -- Scientists have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals. ... > full story

Better brain wiring linked to family genes (March 14, 2011) -- How well our brains function is largely based on our family's genetic makeup, according to a new study. ... > full story

Shape memory polymers shed light on how cells respond to physical environment (March 14, 2011) -- Researchers have used shape memory polymers to provide greater insight into how cells sense and respond to their physical environment. ... > full story

Combination overcomes breast cancer resistance to herceptin (March 14, 2011) -- Breast cancer tumors take numerous paths to resist the targeted drug Herceptin, but a single roadblock at a crucial crossroads may restore a tumor's vulnerability to treatment, scientists report. ... > full story

Study of 90 animals' thigh bones reveals how they can efficiently carry loads (March 14, 2011) -- The structures inside animals' thigh bones that enable them to support huge loads whilst being relatively lightweight are revealed in a new study. The researchers say their work could lead to the development of new materials based on thigh bone geometry. ... > full story

Workplace noise-related hearing loss affects sleep quality (March 14, 2011) -- Although tinnitus was reported as the main sleep disrupting factor, hearing impairment among workers exposed to harmful noise contributed to sleep impairment, especially to insomnia, regardless of age and years of exposure. ... > full story

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