Selasa, 08 Maret 2011

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for Tuesday, March 8, 2011

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Eating apples extends lifespan of test animals by 10 percent (March 8, 2011) -- Scientists are reporting the first evidence that consumption of a healthful antioxidant substance in apples extends the average lifespan of test animals, and does so by 10 percent. The new results, obtained with fruit flies -- stand-ins for humans in hundreds of research projects each year -- bolster similar findings on apple antioxidants in other animal tests. ... > full story

Spontaneous smoking cessation may be an early symptom of lung cancer, research suggests (March 8, 2011) -- Many longtime smokers quit spontaneously with little effort shortly before their lung cancer is diagnosed, leading some researchers to speculate that sudden cessation may be a symptom of lung cancer. ... > full story

Peanut worms are annelids (March 8, 2011) -- Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis has shown that the marine animals known as peanut worms are not a separate phylum, but are definitely part of the family of annelids, also known as segmented worms. This is a classification that seemed questionable in the past in view of the fact that peanut worms -- or the Sipunculidae, to give them their scientific name -- have neither segments nor bristles. The latter are considered typical characteristics of annelids, which include more than 16,500 identified species and to which our common earthworm belongs. ... > full story

Surprising behavior of cells during blood-vessel formation (March 8, 2011) -- Biologists look at cells in bulk, taking the average behavior as the norm and assuming that identical cells behave the same. Biomedical engineers now show a surprising variation in how cells behave during formation of a blood vessel. They have now characterized, for the first time, what happens when endothelial cells move from an initial dispersed state to capillary-like structures. ... > full story

New mathematical model of information processing in the brain accurately predicts some of the peculiarities of human vision (March 8, 2011) -- The human retina -- the part of the eye that converts incoming light into electrochemical signals -- has about 100 million light-sensitive cells. So retinal images contain a huge amount of data. High-level visual-processing tasks -- like object recognition, gauging size and distance, or calculating the trajectory of a moving object -- couldn't possibly preserve all that data: The brain just doesn't have enough neurons. So vision scientists have long assumed that the brain must somehow summarize the content of retinal images, reducing their informational load before passing them on to higher-order processes. ... > full story

Brain 'network maps' reveal clue to mental decline in old age (March 8, 2011) -- The human brain operates as a highly interconnected small-world network, not as a collection of discrete regions as previously believed, with important implications for why many of us experience cognitive declines in old age, a new study shows. Australian researchers have mapped the brain's neural networks and for the first time linked them with specific cognitive functions, such as information processing and language. ... > full story

New interpretation of Antarctic ice cores: Prevailing theory on climate history expanded (March 8, 2011) -- Climate researchers have expanded a prevalent theory regarding the development of ice ages. Physicists have completed new calculations on the connection between natural insulation and long-term changes in global climate activity. Up to now the presumption was that temperature fluctuations in Antarctica, which have been reconstructed for the last million years on the basis of ice cores, were triggered by the global effect of climate changes in the northern hemisphere. The new study shows, however, that major portions of the temperature fluctuations can be explained equally well by local climate changes in the southern hemisphere. ... > full story

Drug delivery with nanoparticles (March 8, 2011) -- Researchers are able to produce medicine encapsulated in nanoparticles the size of viruses, but new research has shown another great challenge in nanomedicine -- the immune system -- and the importance of the coating polymers on the nanoparticle surface. ... > full story

Sea sponges: Tweak of nature in fight against cancer (March 8, 2011) -- Scientists in London are turning to sea sponges to help them learn more about anti-cancer drugs. ... > full story

New peptide could be effective treatment for triple negative breast cancer (March 8, 2011) -- A new leptin receptor antagonist peptide has demonstrated efficacy against triple negative breast cancer. ... > full story

Preparing for the unexpected (March 8, 2011) -- How can you plan for an emergency the nature of which you don't know? Researchers in Germany are working on strategies and technologies that would help to predict and improve the response to crises. ... > full story

Turning off stress (March 8, 2011) -- New research has revealed the actions of a family of proteins that "turn off" the stress response. The findings could be relevant to PTSD, anorexia, anxiety disorders and depression. ... > full story

Tobacco smoking impacts teens' brains, study shows (March 7, 2011) -- In a study comparing teenage smokers and non-smokers, researchers found that the greater a teen's addiction to nicotine, the less active an area of the brain called the prefrontal cortex (PFC) became. The PFC guides "executive functions" like decision-making, and is an area that is still developing structurally and functionally in adolescents. ... > full story

Gene variants in autism linked to brain development (March 7, 2011) -- New research on the genomics of autism confirms that the genetic roots of the disorder are highly complicated, but that common biological themes underlie this complexity. While the gene alterations are individually very rare, they mostly appear to disrupt genes that play important functional roles in brain development and nerve signaling. ... > full story

NASA studies the body's ability to fight infection (March 7, 2011) -- Why do some people get sick while others stay healthy? Since space shuttle Discovery launched into orbit Feb. 24, 2011, it has brought NASA scientists one step closer to helping astronauts and the public discover ways to battle and prevent serious illness and infection. ... > full story

Health benefits of eating tomatoes emerge (March 7, 2011) -- Eating more tomatoes and tomato products can make people healthier and decrease the risk of conditions such as cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, according to a review article. ... > full story

Relaxation leads to lower elasticity: Model system delivers vital clues on the aging processes of elastic polymers (March 7, 2011) -- As they age, many materials exhibit changes in their properties. Although such phenomena crop up in many domains, the underlying processes are oftentimes not fully understood. Particularly interesting in this context are polymer materials found in plastics and in biological systems. A group of physicists in Germany has developed a model system casting light on essential aspects of these processes. ... > full story

Is March Madness always the same? (March 7, 2011) -- Why is it that the same teams seem to dominate the annual men's collegiate basketball tournament? For that matter, why does the same small group of institutions seem to top annual best-college rankings? ... > full story

Abundant ammonia aids life's origins (March 7, 2011) -- An important discovery has been made with respect to the possible inventory of molecules available to early Earth. Scientists found large amounts of ammonia in a primitive Antarctic asteroid. This high concentration of ammonia could account for a sustained source of reduced nitrogen essential to the chemistry of life. ... > full story

Class of potent anti-cancer compounds discovered (March 7, 2011) -- Working as part of a public program to screen compounds to find potential medicines and other biologically useful molecules, scientists have discovered an extremely potent class of potential anti-cancer and anti-neurodegenerative disorder compounds. The scientists hope their findings will one day lead to new therapies for cancer and Alzheimer's disease patients. ... > full story

'Nano-Velcro' technology used to improve capture of circulating cancer cells (March 7, 2011) -- Researchers have announced the successful demonstration of a 2nd-generation CTC enrichment technology, capable of effectively identifying and capturing circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples collected from prostate cancer patients. This new approach could be even faster and cheaper than existing methods and captures a greater number of CTCs. ... > full story

Solving a traditional Chinese medicine mystery: Discovery of molecular mechanism reveals antitumor possibilities (March 7, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered that a natural product isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal plant commonly known as thunder god vine, or lei gong teng, and used for hundreds of years to treat many conditions including rheumatoid arthritis works by blocking gene control machinery in the cell. The report suggests that the natural product could be a starting point for developing new anticancer drugs. ... > full story

Removing arsenic from drinking water (March 7, 2011) -- Pioneering technology which is transforming the lives of millions of people in Asia is now being used to create safer drinking water in the United States. ... > full story

Web use doesn't encourage belief in political rumors, but e-mail does (March 7, 2011) -- Despite the fears of some, a new study suggests that use of the internet in general does not make people more likely to believe political rumors. However, one form of internet communication -- e-mail -- does seem to have troubling consequences for the spread and belief of rumors. ... > full story

Multiple sclerosis blocked in mouse model: Barring immune cells from brain prevents symptoms (March 7, 2011) -- Scientists have blocked harmful immune cells from entering the brain in mice with a condition similar to multiple sclerosis (MS). ... > full story

New compound rids cells of Alzheimer protein debris (March 7, 2011) -- If you can't stop the beta-amyloid protein plaques from forming in Alzheimer's disease patients, then maybe you can help the body rid itself of them instead. At least that's what scientists were hoping for when they found a drug candidate to do just that. ... > full story

Stretchable balloon electronics get to the heart of cardiac medicine (March 7, 2011) -- Cardiologists may soon be able to place sensitive electronics inside their patients' hearts with minimal invasiveness, enabling more sophisticated and efficient diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias. Scientists have successfully integrated stretchable electronics technology with standard endocardial balloon catheters. The balloon device can both map and ablate over large areas of the heart simultaneously, using integrated arrays of multifunctional sensors and ablation electrodes. ... > full story

Helicobacter pylori infection linked to decreased iron levels in otherwise healthy children (March 7, 2011) -- Children without previous iron deficiencies or anemia who remained infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) had significantly lower levels of iron compared to children who had the infection eradicated, according to researchers. ... > full story

Japanese scientists use alcoholic drinks to induce superconductivity (March 7, 2011) -- Japanese researchers have been immersing iron-based compounds in hot alcoholic beverages such as red wine, sake and shochu to induce superconductivity. Scientists have found that immersing pellets of an iron-based compound in heated alcoholic beverages for 24 hours greatly increase their superconducting ability. ... > full story

Elderly see pedestrians half as often as younger drivers, according to new research (March 7, 2011) -- Researchers used two evaluation methods: driving in a traffic simulator while watching video of traffic scenes, and identifying hazardous situations. The video observation method showed that elderly drivers took longer to respond to pedestrian hazards. Approximately half of the pedestrian-related events presented in the videos were difficult for elderly drivers to perceive. The elderly group attempted to cope with hazards by reducing their driving speed by almost 20 percent, providing them more time to process the potential hazards. ... > full story

Enzyme enhances, erases long-term memories in rats; Can restore even old, fading memories, say scientists (March 7, 2011) -- Even long after it is formed, a memory in rats can be enhanced or erased by increasing or decreasing the activity of a brain enzyme. For the first time, a study in behaving animals with functioning brains has found that a single molecule, PKMzeta, is both necessary and sufficient for maintaining long-term memory. ... > full story

New gene regions identified that predispose people to heart attacks: Some hint at previously unknown mechanisms that increase risk (March 7, 2011) -- Scientists have identified 13 new gene sites associated with the risk of coronary artery disease and validated 10 sites found in previous studies. Several of the novel sites discovered in the study do not appear to relate to known risk factors, suggesting previously unsuspected mechanisms for cardiovascular disease. ... > full story

New camera makes seeing the 'invisible' possible (March 7, 2011) -- The science similar to the type used in airport body scanners could soon be used to detect everything from defects in aerospace vehicles or concrete bridges to skin cancer, thanks to new research. ... > full story

New test for 'pluripotent' stem cells (March 7, 2011) -- "Pluripotent" stem cells -- which have the potential to mature into almost any cell in the body -- are being widely studied for their role in treating a vast array of human diseases and for generating cells and tissues for transplantation. Now, scientists have created a quality control diagnostic test that will make it much easier for researchers to determine whether their cell lines are normal pluripotent cells. ... > full story

Food science challenges for NASA missions to Mars (March 7, 2011) -- Space food for astronauts tastes better and is now healthier than ever before due to significant food science developments. However, a new study highlights the challenges that need to be addressed so that astronauts can travel to Mars and beyond. ... > full story

Noise distracts fish from their dinner (March 7, 2011) -- We all struggle to concentrate when there are roadworks taking place outside our window. New research demonstrates that fish suffer the same problem, becoming distracted from normal feeding behavior when noise is added to their environment. ... > full story

'Elephant trunks' in space: WISE captures image of star-forming cloud of dust and gas (March 7, 2011) -- NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, captured this image of a star-forming cloud of dust and gas, called Sh2-284, located in the constellation of Monoceros. Lining up along the edges of a cosmic hole are several "elephant trunks" -- or monstrous pillars of dense gas and dust. ... > full story

Human stem cells transformed into key neurons lost in Alzheimer's (March 7, 2011) -- Researchers for the first time have transformed a human embryonic stem cell into a critical neuron that dies early in Alzheimer's disease and is a major cause of memory loss. This ability to reprogram stem cells and grow a limitless supply of the neurons will enable a rapid wave of drug testing, allow researchers to study why the neurons die and could potentially lead to transplanting the new neurons into people with Alzheimer's. ... > full story

NASA light technology successfully reduces cancer patients painful side effects from radiation and chemotherapy (March 7, 2011) -- A NASA technology originally developed for plant growth experiments on space shuttle missions has successfully reduced the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marrow and stem cell transplant patients. ... > full story

Vaccinated children not at higher risk of infections or allergic diseases, study suggests (March 7, 2011) -- Do vaccinations put too much strain on or weaken children's immune systems? A recent evaluation showed that unvaccinated children and adolescents differ from their vaccinated peers merely in terms of the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases. These include pertussis, mumps, or measles. As expected, the risk of contracting these diseases is substantially lower in vaccinated children and adolescents. ... > full story

Brazilian beef: Greater impact on the environment than we realize (March 7, 2011) -- Increased export of Brazilian beef indirectly leads to deforestation in the Amazon. New research shows that impact on the climate is much greater than current estimates indicate. The researchers are now demanding that indirect effect on land be included when determining a product’s carbon footprint. ... > full story

Brain rhythm predicts real-time sleep stability, may lead to more precise sleep medications (March 7, 2011) -- A new study finds that a brain rhythm considered the hallmark of wakefulness not only persists inconspicuously during sleep but also signifies an individual's vulnerability to disturbance by the outside world. ... > full story

Sea-ice algae can engineer ice to its advantage using own antifreeze (March 7, 2011) -- Sea-ice algae -- the important first rung of the food web each spring in places like the Arctic Ocean -- can engineer ice to its advantage. The same gel-like mucus secreted by sea-ice algae as a kind of antifreeze against temperatures well below minus 10 C is also allowing algae to sculpt microscopic channels and pores in ice that are hospitable to itself and other microorganisms. ... > full story

Gene responsible for severe osteoporosis disorder discovered (March 7, 2011) -- Scientists have identified a single mutated gene that causes Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, a disorder of the bones causing progressive bone loss and osteoporosis. ... > full story

Spitzer captures infrared rays from 'Sunflower' galaxy (March 7, 2011) -- The various spiral arm segments of the Sunflower galaxy, also known as Messier 63, show up vividly in a new image taken in infrared light by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared light is sensitive to the dust lanes in spiral galaxies, which appear dark in visible-light images. Spitzer's view reveals complex structures that trace the galaxy's spiral arm pattern. ... > full story

Loss of key protein boosts neuron loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (March 7, 2011) -- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a notorious neurodegenerative condition characterized by the progressive deterioration of brain and spinal cord neurons, resulting in the gradual but catastrophic loss of muscle control and ultimately, death. Scientists can now describe the profound and pervasive role of a key protein in ALS pathology called TDP-43. ... > full story

Probing atomic chicken wire: Mounting graphene on boron nitride dramatically improves electronic properties (March 7, 2011) -- Graphene -- a sheet of carbon atoms linked in a hexagonal, chicken wire structure -- could someday make electronic devices smaller, faster and more energy-efficient. Researchers have demonstrated that mounting graphene on boron nitride instead of silicon oxide dramatically improves its electronic properties. ... > full story

The better off sleep better (March 7, 2011) -- The employed and self-employed enjoy much better sleep than those out of work, according to Understanding Society, the world's largest longitudinal household study. Those who are unemployed are over 40% more likely to report difficulty staying asleep than those in employment (having controlled for age and gender differences). However, job satisfaction affects the quality of sleep with 33% of the most dissatisfied employees report poor sleep quality compared to only 18% of the most satisfied. ... > full story

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