Senin, 07 Maret 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Monday, March 7, 2011

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Stem cell study could aid motor neuron disease research (March 7, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a new way to generate human motor nerve cells in a development that will help research into motor neuron disease. Scientists have created a range of motor neurons -- nerves cells that send messages from the brain and spine to other parts of the body -- from human embryonic stem cells in the laboratory. ... > full story

Depression and anxiety differentially influence physical symptom reporting (March 7, 2011) -- Researchers have for decades hypothesized that negative emotions lead to inflated reports of common physical symptoms, like headaches or an upset stomach. But a new study suggests that two negative emotions -- depression and anxiety -- influence symptom reporting in different ways. ... > full story

Life-saving blood test for fungal meningitis, a leading cause of AIDS-related deaths in developing countries (March 7, 2011) -- A new, rapid blood test that could lead to early diagnosis and potentially save the lives of hundreds of thousands of people stricken with fungal meningitis, a leading cause of AIDS-related deaths in developing countries, is getting closer to market with a recent collaboration of researchers. ... > full story

Boron neutron capture therapy is effective in advanced head and neck cancer, study suggests (March 7, 2011) -- The years of work done on developing and clinically testing of BNCT -- or Boron Neutron Capture Therapy -- are now paying off. BNCT-based treatment has been successfully used to treat patients with advanced head and neck cancer who have not responded to previous treatments and generally have poor prognosis. ... > full story

Speedy generic approval may not benefit consumers as much as expected, mathematical model shows (March 7, 2011) -- Faster approval times for generic drugs will get them into consumers' hands quicker, but may not make the price any better, a pricing and marketing researcher has found. A mathematical model shows that fewer firms enter the marketplace because the chances of getting there first and commanding the best profits are dramatically smaller when drug approval times are shorter. ... > full story

Racial identity tied to happiness, study finds (March 7, 2011) -- African American people who identify more strongly with their racial identity are generally happier, according to a study by psychology researchers. ... > full story

Possible role of damaged DNA in tumor development (March 6, 2011) -- DNA provides the instruction manual for all life forms. Occasionally, instructions are not carried out properly, and bad messages are sent leading to the creation of mutant proteins and possible tumor development. ... > full story

Human cues used to improve computer user-friendliness (March 6, 2011) -- Researchers want computers to understand inputs from humans that go beyond the traditional keyboard and mouse. They have now developed ways to provide information to a computer based on where a user is looking as well as through gestures or speech. ... > full story

Cadmium in children’s jewelry: 100 times recommended maximum exposure if mouthed or swallowed (March 6, 2011) -- Young children who mouth or swallow jewelry containing cadmium may be exposed to as much as 100 times the recommended maximum exposure limit for the toxic metal, according to new research. The study measured bioavailability, or how much cadmium leached out of the jewelry. The research also found that damaged pieces of jewelry in some cases leached up to 30 times more cadmium than undamaged pieces. ... > full story

Novel mechanism for control of gene expression revealed (March 6, 2011) -- Scientists have recently discovered a novel, evolutionarily conserved mechanism for the regulation of gene expression. Normal cell growth, embryonic development, and responses to stress, require proper spatial and temporal control of gene expression. Studies on control of transcription (RNA biosynthesis) are typically centered on understanding how the RNA polymerase is recruited to the promoter, the control region of a gene. However, new work has revealed the existence of a second level of control in a yeast model system. ... > full story

Bone-creating protein could improve dental implant success (March 6, 2011) -- Using a bone-creating protein to augment the maxillary sinus could improve dental implant success, according to new research. ... > full story

Weight-loss surgery successful in treating overweight adolescents, study suggests (March 6, 2011) -- Bariatric surgery can result in significant weight loss in severely obese adolescents. ... > full story

Happy Hour linked to pub violence, UK study finds (March 6, 2011) -- A new study has established a link between pub violence and happy hour-style drinking promotions. The findings also show that pub staff themselves need to do more to stop heavily intoxicated customers from continuing to drink. ... > full story

Jekyll and Hyde: Cells' executioner can also stave off death (March 5, 2011) -- An enzyme viewed as an executioner, because it can push cells to commit suicide, may actually short circuit a second form of cell death, researchers have discovered. The finding could shift drug discovery efforts, by leading scientists to rethink how proposed anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs that target the enzyme, called caspase 8, are supposed to work. ... > full story

Decline in cerebral palsy diagnoses in premature infants suggests improvements in perinatal care (March 5, 2011) -- Cerebral palsy is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects motor function, more often in children born prematurely. Because cerebral palsy is a result of brain injury received shortly before, during, or soon after birth, the number of infants being diagnosed with the condition is a good indicator of the quality of perinatal and neonatal care. Rates of cerebral palsy have declined dramatically in the past 15 years. ... > full story

Mean girls and queen bees: Females threatened by social exclusion will reject others first (March 5, 2011) -- Many studies have suggested that males tend to be more physically and verbally aggressive than females. According to a new study, it may not be the case that women are less competitive than men -- they may just be using a different strategy to come out ahead. Specifically, women may rely more on indirect forms of aggression, such as social exclusion. ... > full story

Mutations found in human induced pluripotent stem cells (March 5, 2011) -- Ordinary human cells reprogrammed as induced pluripotent stem cells may revolutionize personalized medicine by creating new and diverse therapies unique to individual patients. But important and unanswered questions have persisted about the safety of these cells, in particular whether their genetic material is altered during the reprogramming process. A new study finds that the genetic material of reprogrammed cells may in fact be compromised, and suggests that extensive genetic screening of hiPSCs become standard practice. ... > full story

Prostate cancer: Targeted therapy shrank tumors up to 74 percent in cells in mice (March 5, 2011) -- Researchers have identified a potential target to treat an aggressive type of prostate cancer. The target, a gene called SPINK1, could be to prostate cancer what HER2 has become for breast cancer. ... > full story

To bring effective therapies to patients quicker, use the team approach (March 5, 2011) -- The current clinical trial process in the US is on shaky ground. In this era of personalized medicine, patient populations for new therapies grow smaller and smaller. Coupled with skyrocketing costs and expanding regulatory requirements, the completion of trials is extremely difficult. Researchers propose a new model to ensure effective treatments become available more quickly and at a lower cost -- collaborative clinical trials, in which companies team up and share costs to test new therapies. ... > full story

Certain parts of the brain activated in people who heard tailored health messages and quit smoking (March 5, 2011) -- People who demonstrated a stronger brain response to certain brain regions when receiving individually tailored smoking cessation messages were more likely to quit smoking four months after, a new study found. ... > full story

Every five minutes someone dies from a blood clot or deep vein thrombosis (March 5, 2011) -- Each year between 100,000-180,000 Americans die as the result of pulmonary embolism, a complication from blood clots in the lungs. The Vascular Disease Foundation urges Americans, especially women, to learn about the risks of venous blood clots to help prevent these deaths. While men and women are at equal risk, the risk for deep vein thrombosis, or blood clots, varies depending on where a woman is in her lifecycle, her hormone levels, and if she has a family history of clotting disorders. ... > full story

New non-surgical autopsy technique set to revolutionize post-mortem practice (March 4, 2011) -- A new non-surgical post-mortem technique that has the potential to revolutionize the way autopsies are conducted around the world has been pioneered by forensic pathologists and radiologists. ... > full story

Possible new treatment strategies for pancreatic cancer (March 4, 2011) -- Researchers have identified a protein that can be modified to improve the effectiveness of one of the most common drugs used to treat pancreatic cancer. ... > full story

Feet first? Old mitochondria might be responsible for neuropathy in the extremities (March 4, 2011) -- The burning, tingling pain of neuropathy may affect feet and hands before other body parts because the powerhouses of nerve cells that supply the extremities age and become dysfunctional as they complete the long journey to these areas, scientists suggest in a new study. The finding may eventually lead to new ways to fight neuropathy, a condition that often accompanies other diseases including HIV/AIDS, diabetes and circulatory disorders. ... > full story

Can you predict your mate will cheat by their voice? (March 4, 2011) -- When choosing a partner, women believe the lower the man's voice, the more likely he's going to cheat. Conversely, men think a woman with a higher voice is more likely to be unfaithful, researchers have found. The study is the first to examine the link between voice pitch and perceived infidelity and offers insight into the evolution of the human voice and how we choose our mates. ... > full story

How long do stem cells live? (March 4, 2011) -- A unique computer model calculates how long a blood stem cell will live, information that could predict the outcome of bone marrow transplants. ... > full story

Some overweight adolescents may be at risk for weak bones (March 4, 2011) -- Overweight adolescents already struggling with risk factors such as insulin resistance may need to add weak bones to their list of health concerns, researchers report. A study of 143 overweight 14- to 18-year-olds showed those with risk factors such as the precursor for diabetes and low levels of the blood-vessel protecting HDL cholesterol have less bone mass -- an indicator of bone strength -- than their overweight but otherwise healthy peers, according to new research. ... > full story

Constant race-based discrimination can lead to 'racial battle fatigue' for African-Americans (March 4, 2011) -- Just as the constant pressure soldiers face on the battlefield can follow them home in the form of debilitating stress, African-Americans who face chronic exposure to racial discrimination may have an increased likelihood of suffering a race-based battle fatigue, according to researchers. ... > full story

New light-sensing mechanism found in neurons (March 4, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a second form of phototransduction light sensing in cells that is derived from vitamin B2. This discovery may reveal new information about cellular processes controlled by light. ... > full story

Star-shaped brain cells feed long-term memory (March 4, 2011) -- Researchers have found that lactate, a type of energy fuel in the brain, plays a critical role in the formation of long-term memory. These findings have important implications for common illnesses like Alzheimer's disease, other neurodegenerative disorders, aging-related memory impairment and diabetes. ... > full story

Drop in temperature may explain the increase in dry eye suffering (March 4, 2011) -- Springtime may be just what the doctor orders for individuals suffering from dry eye condition, a disorder resulting from insufficient tear production or altered tear film composition. According to a new study, a temperature less than 30 degrees Celsius on the eye and eyelid could be the cause for the onset or worsening of the disorder. ... > full story

Moderate sleep loss impairs vigilance and sustained attention in children with ADHD (March 4, 2011) -- A new study indicates that the ability of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to remain vigilant and attentive deteriorated significantly after losing less than one hour of nightly sleep for a week. ... > full story

Neurons with symptoms of Parkinson's disease created from patient's skin cells (March 4, 2011) -- Neurons have been derived from the skin of a woman with a genetic form of Parkinson's disease and have been shown to replicate some key features of the condition in a dish, say researchers. ... > full story

Risks of chemical exposure: Scientists call for 'swifter and sounder' testing of chemicals (March 4, 2011) -- Scientific societies representing 40,000 researchers and clinicians are asking that federal regulators tap a broader range of expertise when evaluating the risks of chemicals to which Americans are being increasingly exposed. ... > full story

Trouble with the latest dance move? GABA might be to blame (March 4, 2011) -- If you tend to have trouble picking up the latest dance moves or learning to play a new piano piece, there might be an explanation. A new study shows that people who are fast to learn a simple sequence of finger motions are also those whose brains show large changes in a particular chemical messenger following electrical stimulation. ... > full story

Ibuprofen may reduce risk of developing Parkinson's disease, study suggests (March 4, 2011) -- Adults who regularly take ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, have about one-third less risk of developing Parkinson's disease than non-users, according to a new study. ... > full story

Sex differences in male and female learning revealed by gibbons (March 4, 2011) -- Differences in the way male and female learning has evolved have been revealed by new research into gibbons. ... > full story

MRSA danger in gyms may be exaggerated, study suggests (March 4, 2011) -- Community gym surfaces do not appear to be reservoirs for MRSA transmission, according to a new study. ... > full story

Potential mechanisms for future anti-obesity drugs identified (March 4, 2011) -- Scientists have identified the neurological and cellular signaling mechanisms that contribute to satiety -- the sensation of feeling full -- and the subsequent body-weight loss produced by drugs used to treat Type 2 diabetes. More comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms could form the basis for anti-obesity medications. ... > full story

Obesity may increase risk of triple-negative breast cancer (March 4, 2011) -- New findings confirm the risk of breast cancer among women who are obese and not physically active, and suggests additional mechanisms beyond estrogen. ... > full story

Older patients confused about multiple drug dosing (March 4, 2011) -- Many older patients, who take an average of seven medicines a day, are so confused by the vague instructions on prescription bottles they don't realize they can combine their medications to take them more efficiently. A new study shows patients thought they had to take seven medicines at least seven and up to 14 separate times a day. Researchers recommend a standardized universal medication drug schedule at morning, noon, evening and bedtime. ... > full story

New clue to controlling skin regeneration, as well as skin cancer (March 4, 2011) -- Researchers have now found a regulator of gene activity that tells epidermal stem cells when it's time to grow more skin, as well as a "crowd control" molecule that can sense cell crowding and turn the growth off. ... > full story

New findings on drug tolerance in TB suggest ideas for shorter cures (March 4, 2011) -- A study of host-pathogen responses in tuberculosis elucidates molecular mechanisms of antibiotic tolerance in tuberculosis and further suggests a strategy for shortening curative therapy (currently six months) using a class of drugs -- efflux pump inhibitors -- that are already approved for treating high blood pressure and angina, and available for use in people. ... > full story

Ultrasound and algorithms could lead to better breast cancer screening (March 4, 2011) -- New research holds the promise of becoming a powerful new weapon in the fight against breast cancer. His complex computational research has led to a fast, inexpensive new method for using ultrasound and advanced algorithms to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors with a high degree of accuracy. ... > full story

Fear of side effects shapes older patients' willingness to take heart medication (March 4, 2011) -- Faced with the risk of developing side effects, even ones as mild as fatigue, nausea and fuzzy thinking, many older patients are willing to forego medications that provide only average benefit in preventing heart attack, according to a new article. ... > full story

Susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder identified (March 3, 2011) -- A new study provides fascinating insight into the genetic basis of bipolar disorder, a highly heritable mood disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. The research identifies a previously unrecognized susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder. ... > full story

Easy, accurate way to predict food allergies developed, study suggests (March 3, 2011) -- An on-line calculator that predicts, within seconds, the presence of the three major food allergies in children has been developed. The new calculator gives 96% accuracy compared to current methods that are 61% -81% accurate. ... > full story

Cancer patients' partners become ill themselves, Swedish study shows (March 3, 2011) -- People who are married to or cohabiting with a cancer patient suffer more illness in the year following their spouse or partner’s cancer diagnosis, according to recent research from Sweden. ... > full story

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