Jumat, 04 Maret 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Friday, March 4, 2011

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Potential mechanisms for future anti-obesity drugs identified (March 4, 2011) -- Scientists have identified the neurological and cellular signaling mechanisms that contribute to satiety -- the sensation of feeling full -- and the subsequent body-weight loss produced by drugs used to treat Type 2 diabetes. More comprehensive knowledge of these mechanisms could form the basis for anti-obesity medications. ... > full story

Obesity may increase risk of triple-negative breast cancer (March 4, 2011) -- New findings confirm the risk of breast cancer among women who are obese and not physically active, and suggests additional mechanisms beyond estrogen. ... > full story

Older patients confused about multiple drug dosing (March 4, 2011) -- Many older patients, who take an average of seven medicines a day, are so confused by the vague instructions on prescription bottles they don't realize they can combine their medications to take them more efficiently. A new study shows patients thought they had to take seven medicines at least seven and up to 14 separate times a day. Researchers recommend a standardized universal medication drug schedule at morning, noon, evening and bedtime. ... > full story

New clue to controlling skin regeneration, as well as skin cancer (March 4, 2011) -- Researchers have now found a regulator of gene activity that tells epidermal stem cells when it's time to grow more skin, as well as a "crowd control" molecule that can sense cell crowding and turn the growth off. ... > full story

New findings on drug tolerance in TB suggest ideas for shorter cures (March 4, 2011) -- A study of host-pathogen responses in tuberculosis elucidates molecular mechanisms of antibiotic tolerance in tuberculosis and further suggests a strategy for shortening curative therapy (currently six months) using a class of drugs -- efflux pump inhibitors -- that are already approved for treating high blood pressure and angina, and available for use in people. ... > full story

Ultrasound and algorithms could lead to better breast cancer screening (March 4, 2011) -- New research holds the promise of becoming a powerful new weapon in the fight against breast cancer. His complex computational research has led to a fast, inexpensive new method for using ultrasound and advanced algorithms to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors with a high degree of accuracy. ... > full story

Fear of side effects shapes older patients' willingness to take heart medication (March 4, 2011) -- Faced with the risk of developing side effects, even ones as mild as fatigue, nausea and fuzzy thinking, many older patients are willing to forego medications that provide only average benefit in preventing heart attack, according to a new article. ... > full story

Susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder identified (March 3, 2011) -- A new study provides fascinating insight into the genetic basis of bipolar disorder, a highly heritable mood disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. The research identifies a previously unrecognized susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder. ... > full story

Easy, accurate way to predict food allergies developed, study suggests (March 3, 2011) -- An on-line calculator that predicts, within seconds, the presence of the three major food allergies in children has been developed. The new calculator gives 96% accuracy compared to current methods that are 61% -81% accurate. ... > full story

Cancer patients' partners become ill themselves, Swedish study shows (March 3, 2011) -- People who are married to or cohabiting with a cancer patient suffer more illness in the year following their spouse or partner’s cancer diagnosis, according to recent research from Sweden. ... > full story

Women who miscarry continue to have mental health problems, even after healthy birth (March 3, 2011) -- The depression and anxiety experienced by many women after a miscarriage can continue for years, even after the birth of a healthy child, according to a new study. ... > full story

Liver, not brain, may be origin of Alzheimer’s plaques (March 3, 2011) -- Unexpected results from a new study could completely alter scientists' ideas about Alzheimer's disease -- pointing to the liver instead of the brain as the source of the "amyloid" that deposits as brain plaques associated with this devastating condition. The findings could offer a relatively simple approach for Alzheimer's prevention and treatment. ... > full story

New method allows human embryonic stem cells to avoid immune system rejection (March 3, 2011) -- A short-term treatment with three immune-dampening drugs allowed human embryonic stem cells to survive and thrive in mice. ... > full story

Solving the puzzle of Henry VIII (March 3, 2011) -- The numerous miscarriages suffered by the wives of Henry VIII could be explained if the king's blood carried the Kell antigen. If Henry also suffered from McLeod syndrome, a genetic disorder specific to the Kell blood group, it would finally provide an explanation for his dramatic mid-life shift in both physical form and personality. ... > full story

Potassium levels possible key to racial disparity in Type 2 diabetes (March 3, 2011) -- Lower potassium levels in the blood may help explain why African-Americans are twice as likely to be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes as whites, according to a new study. ... > full story

The more secure you feel, the less you value your stuff (March 3, 2011) -- People who feel more secure in receiving love and acceptance from others place less monetary value on their possessions, according to new research. ... > full story

New drug regimens cut HIV spread from mother to infant (March 3, 2011) -- Pregnant women who are unaware that they have HIV miss the chance for drug treatment that can benefit not only their own health, but could also prevent them from transmitting the virus to their infants. When HIV is not diagnosed until women go into labor, their infants are usually treated soon after birth with the anti-HIV drug zidovudine, to prevent the infants from becoming infected with the virus. ... > full story

New findings challenge view of key part of immune defense (March 3, 2011) -- The natural killer cells of our immune defense are activated for an extended period after the acute infection, which challenges the prevailing view that the elevation and activation of cells quickly pass. This is shown in a study regarding vole fever. ... > full story

Using artificial, cell-like 'honey pots' to entrap deadly viruses (March 3, 2011) -- Researchers have designed artificial "protocells" that can lure, entrap and inactivate a class of deadly human viruses -- think decoys with teeth. ... > full story

How sunlight may reduce the severity of multiple sclerosis (March 3, 2011) -- New research into the neurodegenerative disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) offers new insight into the link between sunlight, vitamin D3, and MS risk and severity. The research studies the relationship between the sunlight-dependent vitamin D3 hormone, immune cells, and the risk and severity of autoimmunity in an experimental model. ... > full story

Researcher seeks to use electrical stimulation to give voice to stroke patients (March 3, 2011) -- A researcher is seeking a new way to help those who are unable to speak to find their voice. He wants to help bring back the voice of stroke patients and others who have suffered paralysis of the vocal folds, through electrical stimulation. ... > full story

Brain's 'autopilot' provides insight into early development of Alzheimer's disease (March 3, 2011) -- Watching the brain's "autopilot" network in real time may help determine the onset of cognitive decline and potentially aid in making an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, according to researchers. ... > full story

Spinal cord injury: Human cells derived from stem cells restore movement in animal models (March 3, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered that a specific type of human cell, generated from stem cells and transplanted into spinal cord injured rats, provide tremendous benefit, not only repairing damage to the nervous system but helping the animals regain locomotor function as well. The study focuses on human astrocytes -- the major support cells in the central nervous system -- and indicates that transplantation of these cells represents a potential avenue to treat spinal cord injuries. ... > full story

New hope for lowering cholesterol (March 3, 2011) -- A promising new way to inhibit cholesterol production in the body has been discovered, one that may yield treatments as effective as existing medications but with fewer side effects. ... > full story

Smoking increases risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, study shows (March 3, 2011) -- Postmenopausal women who smoke or used to smoke have up to a 16 percent higher risk of developing breast cancer compared to women who have never smoked, new research finds. ... > full story

Solving the riddle of nature’s perfect spring (March 3, 2011) -- Scientists have unravelled the shape of the protein that gives human tissues their elastic properties in what could lead to the development of new synthetic elastic polymers. ... > full story

Cannabis use precedes the onset of psychotic symptoms in young people, study finds (March 3, 2011) -- Cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood increases the risk of psychotic symptoms, while continued cannabis use may increase the risk for psychotic disorder in later life, concludes a new study. ... > full story

Type 2 diabetes linked to single gene mutation in one in ten patients (March 3, 2011) -- For individuals of white European descent, certain variations of the gene HMGA1 are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, according to a new study. ... > full story

Six-month drug regimen cuts HIV risk for breastfeeding infants, study finds (March 3, 2011) -- Giving breastfeeding infants of HIV-infected mothers a daily dose of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine for six months halved the risk of HIV transmission to the infants at age 6 months compared with giving infants the drug daily for six weeks, according to preliminary clinical trial data. ... > full story

'A little off the top' helps map cells with submicrometer resolution (March 3, 2011) -- In an effort to identify the early-onset, subtle chemical changes occurring in a cell heading toward malignancy, researchers have developed a technique that slices off the top of a cell and makes the structures accessible to spectroscopic examination of their chemical "signatures." ... > full story

Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption may help stave off dementia, research suggests (March 3, 2011) -- Experts agree that long-term alcohol abuse is detrimental to memory function and can cause neurodegenerative disease. However, according to a new study, there is evidence that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption may decrease the risk of cognitive decline or dementia. ... > full story

Scientists show how men amp up their X chromosome (March 3, 2011) -- Vive la différence? Not at the level of DNA. Men must increase gene expression on their lone X chromosome to match the two X's possessed by women. A new study explains just how men manage to do that. ... > full story

Blood protein in lung cancer could improve diagnosis and treatment (March 3, 2011) -- Scientists are reporting discovery of a protein in the blood of lung cancer patients that could be used in a test for the disease -- difficult to diagnose in its earliest and most treatable stages -- and to develop drugs that stop lung cancer from spreading. ... > full story

Women get short shrift in many heart device studies, despite requirement (March 3, 2011) -- Despite a longstanding requirement for medical device makers to include women in the studies they submit to the Food and Drug Administration for device approval, very few include enough women or separately analyze how the devices work in them. Devices may be on the market without adequate data on their safety and effectiveness in women. ... > full story

Rich and poor, UK youth are happy after all? (March 3, 2011) -- Young people in the UK are very satisfied with their lives with 70 per cent rating themselves as happy or very happy. The findings indicate there is little difference between the average life satisfaction score of those children living in the household with the bottom fifth income and those children living in households in the top fifth income bracket. ... > full story

How ovarian cancer resists chemotherapy (March 3, 2011) -- Researchers have zeroed in on a genetic process that may allow ovarian cancer to resist chemotherapy. ... > full story

How much can a cell uptake? (March 3, 2011) -- Immunological research has revealed a critical component in the "decision-making" process of white blood cells that play a role in the healing process from bacterial inflammation. ... > full story

Freedom to choose leisure activities benefits people with autism (March 3, 2011) -- Free time is not always a fun time for people with autism. Giving them the power to choose their own leisure activities during free time, however, can boost their enjoyment, as well as improve communication and social skills, according to an international team of researchers. ... > full story

College students in Texas and Washington surveyed on guns on campus (March 3, 2011) -- According to new research more college students were uncomfortable with concealed weapons on campus than those at ease with guns on college grounds. ... > full story

Protein identified that serves as a switch in a key pathway of programmed cell death (March 2, 2011) -- Scientists have identified how cells flip a switch between cell survival and cell death that involves a protein called FLIP. ... > full story

New role found for cancer protein p53 (March 2, 2011) -- The gene for the protein p53 is the most frequently mutated in human cancer. It encodes a tumor suppressor, and traditionally researchers have assumed that it acts primarily as a regulator of how genes are made into proteins. Now, researchers show that the protein has at least one other biochemical activity: controlling the metabolism of the sugar glucose, one of body's main sources of fuel. ... > full story

Parents rationalize the economic cost of children by exaggerating their parental joy (March 2, 2011) -- Any parent can tell you that raising a child is emotionally and intellectually draining. Despite their tales of professional sacrifice, financial hardship, and declines in marital satisfaction, many parents continue to insist that their children are an essential source of happiness and fulfillment in their lives. A new study suggests that parents create rosy pictures of parental joy as a way to justify the huge investment that kids require. ... > full story

Protein's elusive role in embryo and disease development unravelled (March 2, 2011) -- Scientists have determined that a single protein called FADD controls multiple cell death pathways, a discovery that could lead to better, more targeted autoimmune disease and cancer drugs. ... > full story

Joint pain in children: Is it just a sore knee, or could it be juvenile idiopathic arthritis? (March 2, 2011) -- While lab tests and imaging can sometimes help diagnose juvenile idiopathic arthritis, a physical examination and thorough patient history are the most valuable tools in identifying this disease. ... > full story

Effectiveness of wastewater treatment may be damaged during a severe flu pandemic (March 2, 2011) -- Existing plans for antiviral and antibiotic use during a severe influenza pandemic could reduce wastewater treatment efficiency prior to discharge into receiving rivers, resulting in water quality deterioration at drinking water abstraction points, according to a new article. ... > full story

Dude, you throw like a crybaby! (March 2, 2011) -- A new study of baseball tosses has found that body language is more likely to be judged as masculine when it seems to convey anger and as feminine when is seems to convey sadness. ... > full story

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) could be caused by a retrovirus, study suggests (March 2, 2011) -- A retrovirus that inserted itself into the human genome thousands of years ago may be responsible for some cases of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gherig's disease. The finding may eventually give researchers a new way to attack this universally fatal condition. ... > full story

Good fungi might prove even better for plant, human health (March 2, 2011) -- Scientists have come closer to understanding how a common fungus "makes its living in the soil," which could lead to its possible "career change" as a therapeutic agent for plant and human health. ... > full story

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