Rabu, 12 Januari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Wednesday, January 12, 2011

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How human vision perceives rapid changes: Brain predicts consequences of eye movements based on what we see next (January 12, 2011) -- Scientists have demonstrated that the brain predicts consequences of our eye movements based on what we see next. The findings have implications for understanding human attention and applications to robotics. ... > full story

DNA introduced directly into cell nucleus using protein nanodisks (January 12, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a novel gene therapy method using particles measuring only a few nanometers which encapsulate genetic material and introduce themselves directly into the cell nucleus. The nanodisks, as researchers have named the particles, travel rapidly to the interior of the cell until reaching the nucleus, thus increasing the efficiency of the gene transfer process. ... > full story

New research aims to shut down viral assembly line (January 12, 2011) -- Scientists are studying the intricate formation of coronaviruses. The research may provide fresh insights leading to antiviral agents against viral pathogens like SARS. ... > full story

The Starbucks effect: Committed customers don't like logo redesigns, research finds (January 12, 2011) -- The negative reaction to Starbucks' redesigned logo by the company's self-described most loyal customers may be attributable to the strong connection Starbucks' consumers feel toward the brand, according to new research. ... > full story

New multiple sclerosis target identified (January 12, 2011) -- Using a mouse model, researchers have discovered that a molecular switch called EMMPRIN plays an important role in MS. The researchers explored how in MS, EMMPRIN affects MMPs and the entry of leukocytes into the CNS to result in disease activity. ... > full story

Implant appears effective for treating inflammatory disease within the eye (January 12, 2011) -- An implant that releases the medication dexamethasone within the eye appears safe and effective for the treatment of some types of uveitis (swelling and inflammation in the eye's middle layer), according to new study. ... > full story

Secret businesses aimed to exploit vaccine fears, British Medical Journal investigation finds (January 12, 2011) -- Andrew Wakefield, the disgraced doctor who claimed a link between MMR and autism, planned secret businesses intended to make huge sums of money, in Britain and America, from his now-discredited allegations, according to a British Medical Journal investigation. ... > full story

Feast or famine: Researchers identify leptin receptor's sidekick as a target for appetite regulation (January 11, 2011) -- A new study adds a new twist to the body of evidence suggesting human obesity is due in part to genetic factors. While studying hormone receptors in laboratory mice, neuroscientists identified a new molecular player responsible for the regulation of appetite and metabolism. ... > full story

New markers for allergic disorders derived from analysis of medical databases (January 11, 2011) -- Researchers have developed new methods for analyzing medical databases that can be used to identify diagnostic markers more quickly and to personalize medication for allergic disorders. They could also reduce the need for animal trials in clinical studies. ... > full story

Possible off-switch for anxiety discovered (January 11, 2011) -- Scientists have made a breakthrough concerning how anxiety is regulated in the vertebrate brain. The work sheds light on how the brain normally shuts off anxiety and also establishes the relevance of zebrafish as a model for human psychiatric disorders. ... > full story

Researchers inch closer to unlocking potential of synthetic blood (January 11, 2011) -- A team of scientists has created particles that closely mirror some of the key properties of red blood cells, potentially helping pave the way for the development of synthetic blood. ... > full story

Bottle rockets can cause serious eye injuries in children (January 11, 2011) -- Bottle rockets can cause significant eye injuries in children, often leading to permanent loss of vision, according to a new study. ... > full story

Body dysmorphic disorder patients who loathe appearance often get better, but it could take years (January 11, 2011) -- A new study by psychiatrists finds evidence that given enough time, patients with body dysmorphic disorder frequently recover and rarely relapse. The surprisingly high rate may be related to patients in prior studies having had especially severe cases of the disease. ... > full story

High sugar consumption may increase risk factors for heart disease in American teenagers (January 11, 2011) -- Consuming high amounts of added sugars in soft drinks and foods in adolescence is associated with poor cholesterol profiles and poor diet quality, possibly leading to heart disease in adulthood, according to new research. Teens who ate the highest levels of added sugars had lower good cholesterol levels and higher bad cholesterol and triglyceride levels than those with the lowest intake. Overweight or obese teens with the highest levels of sugars intake had increased signs of insulin resistance. ... > full story

Lifetime risk of adult rheumatoid arthritis determined (January 11, 2011) -- Researchers have determined the lifetime risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis and six other autoimmune rheumatic diseases for both men and women. ... > full story

Being poor can suppress children's genetic potentials, study finds (January 11, 2011) -- Growing up poor can suppress a child's genetic potential to excel cognitively even before the age of 2, according to research from psychologists in Texas. ... > full story

Smoking around your kindergartner could raise their blood pressure (January 11, 2011) -- Kindergartners whose parents smoke have higher blood pressure than those with non-smoking parents, according to new research. The study of more than 4,000 pre-school children in Germany is the first to show that exposure to nicotine increases the blood pressure of children as young as 4 or 5. Since childhood blood pressure tracks into adult life, researchers said youngsters exposed to cigarette smoke could have a higher risk of heart disease later in life. ... > full story

Viral evasion gene reveals new targets for eliminating chronic infections (January 11, 2011) -- Researchers in Australia have discovered how a key viral gene helps viruses evade early detection by the immune system. Their finding is providing new insights into how viruses are able to establish chronic infections, leading scientists to reevaluate their approaches to viral vaccine development. ... > full story

What causes brain cell death in Parkinson's patients? (January 11, 2011) -- Researchers identify a novel way that neurons die in Parkinson's disease. When they block the process, the neurons survive. ... > full story

New device set to combat fear of the dentist's drill (January 11, 2011) -- An innovative device which cancels out the noise of the dental drill could spell the end of people's anxiety about trips to the dentist, according to experts. ... > full story

New drug target for prion diseases, 'mad cow' (January 11, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered that plasminogen, a protein used by the body to break up blood clots, speeds up the progress of prion diseases such as mad cow disease. ... > full story

Steering cancer inflammation to inhibit tumor growth and spread (January 11, 2011) -- Most cancer tissues are invaded by inflammatory cells that either stimulate or inhibit the growth of the tumor, depending on what immune cells are involved. Now a Swedish-Belgian research team has shown that a protein that naturally occurs in the body, HRG, inhibits tumor growth and metastasis into secondary organs by activating specific immune cells. ... > full story

Abstinence, heavy drinking, binge drinking associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment (January 11, 2011) -- Previous research regarding the association between alcohol consumption and dementia or cognitive impairment in later life suggests that mild to moderate alcohol consumption might be protective of dementia. However, most of the research has been conducted on subjects already rather elderly at the start of the follow-up. A new study addresses this problem with a follow-up of more than two decades. ... > full story

Couch potatoes beware: Too much time spent watching TV is harmful to heart health (January 11, 2011) -- Spending too much leisure time in front of a TV or computer screen appears to dramatically increase the risk for heart disease and premature death from any cause, perhaps regardless of how much exercise one gets, according to a new study. ... > full story

H1N1 pandemic flu points to vaccine strategy for multiple flu strains (January 11, 2011) -- Using blood samples from patients infected with the 2009 H1N1 strain, researchers developed antibodies that could bind H1N1 viruses from the last decade, as well as the 1918 flu virus and even H5N1. Some of the antibodies protected mice from a lethal viral dose, even 60 hours post-infection. The antibodies could help researchers in designing a vaccine against a wide spectrum of flu viruses. ... > full story

Less invasive techniques help manage complications of severe pancreatic disease (January 11, 2011) -- The use of combined treatments for severe acute pancreatitis is safe and effective in managing the disease, resulting in shorter hospitalizations and fewer radiological procedures than standard therapy, according to a new study. In a related study, doctors found that patients with infected pancreatic necrosis were able to avoid surgery through primary conservative treatment, which is in-patient medical treatment. ... > full story

For non-whites, geography plays key role in colon cancer screening; Race, ethnicity only part of equation, research finds (January 11, 2011) -- New research has found that whether a person gets screened for colon cancer often depends on where they live in addition to their race or ethnicity. ... > full story

Gesturing while talking helps change your thoughts (January 10, 2011) -- Sometimes it's almost impossible to talk without using your hands. These gestures seem to be important to how we think. They provide a visual clue to our thoughts and, a new theory suggests, may even change our thoughts by grounding them in action. ... > full story

'UnZIPPING' zinc protects hippocampal neurons (January 10, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered that zinc enters cells through specialized protein gates known as ZIP transporters, and removing these ZIP proteins from cells in the hippocampus (an area of the brain that facilitates storing and retrieving memory) significantly protects them from injury. ... > full story

Mosquito nets do not work everytime, researchers find (January 10, 2011) -- Long-lasting insecticidal nets have yielded an important breakthrough in malaria prevention, but this does not automatically mean they always work against diseases transmitted by insect bites. Against the transmission of kala-azar disease in India and Nepal, they did not have an effect, researchers have found. ... > full story

With proper planning, selective rather than mass vaccination can reduce spread of flu, say physicists (January 10, 2011) -- During outbreaks of the flu, hospitals often reporting overcrowding, and doctors advise people who have not yet been vaccinated against flu to get their shots. Surprisingly, however, three physicists have developed an unconventional, theoretical strategy for intensive but limited vaccination against infectious diseases (such as flu) that would replace the practice of mass inoculation over a prolonged period. The physicists developed their theory using a technique borrowed from quantum mechanics. ... > full story

Children in formal child care have better language skills, Norwegian study finds (January 10, 2011) -- Fewer children who attend regular formal center- and family-based child care at 1.5 years and 3 years of age were late talkers compared with children who are looked after at home by a parent, child-carer or in an outdoor nursery, according to a new Norwegian study of nearly 20,000 children. ... > full story

Cancer in a single catastrophe: Chromosome crisis common in cancer causation (January 10, 2011) -- Cancer is most often considered to be the result of accumulation of mutations over time -- often over years. Researchers have found that in one in 40 cases, chromosomes explode in a single event, creating hundreds of fragments and many mutations. The new process is particularly common in bone cancers. Although the cause of the shattered chromosomes is not known, the team suggest possible mechanisms to be studied. ... > full story

'Long-shot' discovery may lead to advances in treating anxiety, memory disorders (January 10, 2011) -- A "long shot" discovery holds promise for treating post traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders, and perhaps Alzheimer's disease and other memory impairment diseases. The researchers have discovered what may a completely unexplored drug target for the treatment of anxiety disorders. ... > full story

Induced pluripotent stem cells from fetal skin cells and embryonic stem cells display comparable potential for derivation of hepatocytes (January 10, 2011) -- Numerous patients suffering from chronic liver diseases are currently receiving inadequate treatment due to the lack of organs donated for transplantation. However, hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could offer an alternative for the future. Scientists compared hepatocytes from embryonic stem cells with hepatocytes from iPS cells and found that their gene expression is very similar. ... > full story

Watch out for that boom: With the America's Cup destination decided, timely study identifies sailing injuries (January 10, 2011) -- Just as the site for the 2013 America's Cup has been announced, a new study highlights that the sport isn't always smooth sailing. Through an on-line survey completed by sailors, researchers have pieced together a report of the injuries that occur on two types of boats -- dinghies (small boats with crews of one or two) and keel boats (larger boats like those used in the America's Cup races with a crew of up to 16). ... > full story

Extreme obesity associated with higher risk of death for 2009 H1N1 patients (January 10, 2011) -- For those infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, extreme obesity was a powerful risk factor for death, according to an analysis of a public health surveillance database. In a new study, researchers associated extreme obesity with a nearly three-fold increased odds of death from 2009 H1N1 influenza. Half of Californians greater than 20 years of age hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 were obese. ... > full story

When less is more: How mitochondrial signals extend lifespan (January 10, 2011) -- In making your pro-longevity resolutions, like drinking more red wine and maintaining a vibrant social network, here's one you likely forgot: dialing down your mitochondria. It turns out that slowing the engines of these tiny cellular factories could extend your life-an observation relevant not only to aging research but to our understanding of how cells communicate with each another. ... > full story

Treating fractures: Children are not miniature adults, researchers caution (January 10, 2011) -- Treating fractures in children requires special knowledge of growth physiology. Incorrect treatment of bone fractures in child and adolescent patients is less often caused by technical deficiencies than by a misjudgment of the special conditions in this age group. Using the example of treating fractures of the upper limb, researchers in Germany report what should be borne in mind when diagnosing and treating fractures in children, and providing aftercare. They point out possible therapeutic errors and outline strategies to avoid these. ... > full story

Genetic mutation responsible for 'gigantism' disease -- or acromegaly -- identified (January 10, 2011) -- An international research team has identified the genetic mutation responsible for a disease known as "gigantism" or acromegaly. ... > full story

Double doses of chicken pox vaccine most effective, researchers find (January 10, 2011) -- When vaccinating children against varicella (chicken pox), researchers have found, two doses are better than one. In fact, the odds of developing chicken pox were 95 percent lower in children who had received two doses of the vaccine compared with those who had received only one dose. ... > full story

Antibiotic resistance is not just genetic (January 10, 2011) -- Genetic resistance to antibiotics is not the only trick bacteria use to resist eradication -- they also have a second defense strategy known as persistence that can kick in. Researchers have now demonstrated for the first time that interplay occurs between the two mechanisms to aid bacterial survival. The findings could lead to novel, effective approaches to treat multi-drug resistant infections. ... > full story

From dusty punch cards, new insights into link between cholesterol and heart disease (January 10, 2011) -- A stack of punch cards from a landmark study published in 1966, and the legwork to track down the study's participants years later, has yielded the longest analysis of the effects of lipoproteins on coronary heart disease. The study tracked almost 1,900 people over a 29-year period, which is nearly three times longer than other studies that examine the link between different sizes of high-density lipoprotein particles and heart disease. ... > full story

Most consumers want predictive tests to learn if a disease is in their future (January 10, 2011) -- Consumers may place a high value on information to predict their future health, and may be willing to pay out of pocket to get it. In a national survey, roughly 76 percent of people indicated that they would take a hypothetical predictive test to find out if they will later develop Alzheimer's disease, breast or prostate cancer or arthritis. ... > full story

Link between signaling molecules could point way to therapies for epilepsy, stroke, other diseases (January 10, 2011) -- The finding that two molecules communicate to regulate electrical and chemical activity in nerve cells could be a passport to novel therapies for epilepsy and other diseases. ... > full story

Liver disease a possible predictor of stroke (January 10, 2011) -- People suffering from fatty liver disease may be three times more likely to suffer a stroke than individuals without fatty liver, according to a new study. The study is the first to find a link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease -- a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver in non drinkers -- and stroke. ... > full story

Extracting cellular 'engines' may aid in understanding mitochondrial diseases (January 10, 2011) -- Medical researchers who crave a means of exploring the genetic culprits behind a host of neuromuscular disorders may have just had their wish granted by a research team that has performed surgery on single cells to extract and examine their mitochondria. ... > full story

Brain scans show children with ADHD have faulty off-switch for mind-wandering (January 10, 2011) -- Brain scans of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown for the first time why people affected by the condition sometimes have such difficulty in concentrating. The study may explain why parents often say that their child can maintain concentration when they are doing something that interests them, but struggles with boring tasks. ... > full story

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