Sabtu, 29 Januari 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Saturday, January 29, 2011

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Infants ascribe social dominance to larger individuals (January 28, 2011) -- Psychologists have found that infants less than one year old understand social dominance and use relative size to predict who will prevail when two individuals' goals conflict. The lead author says the work suggests we may be born with -- or develop at a very early age -- some understanding of social dominance and how it relates to relative size, a correlation ubiquitous across human cultures and the animal kingdom. ... > full story

Novel surgery removes rare tumor, rebuilds trachea (January 28, 2011) -- Using a novel surgical approach, it's possible to rebuild the trachea and preserve a patient's voice after removing an invasive throat tumor, according to a new article. This case study is the first of its kind to not only document a successful technique to create a fully functional trachea, or windpipe, but also report a rare type of malignant tumor in an adult's trachea. ... > full story

Global eruption rocks the Sun: Scientists re-evaluate ideas about solar storms (January 28, 2011) -- On August 1, 2010, an entire hemisphere of the sun erupted. Filaments of magnetism snapped and exploded, shock waves raced across the stellar surface, billion-ton clouds of hot gas billowed into space. Astronomers knew they had witnessed something big. It was so big, it may have shattered old ideas about solar activity. ... > full story

Smoking widespread among youth with diabetes, raising heart disease risk (January 28, 2011) -- A study found cigarette smoking is widespread among children and young adults with diabetes yet few health care providers are counseling children and young adults with diabetes to not smoke or stop smoking. Children and young adults with diabetes are already at high risk for heart disease before they take up smoking but few studies have examined the association between cigarette smoking and heart disease risk factors in youth with diabetes. ... > full story

Air above Dead Sea contains very high levels of oxidized mercury (January 28, 2011) -- Measurements show that the sea's salt has profound effects on the chemistry of the air above its surface. The atmosphere over the Dead Sea, researchers have found, is laden with oxidized mercury. Some of the highest levels of oxidized mercury ever observed outside the polar regions exist there. ... > full story

The Oscar curse? Oscar win for best actress increases the risk of divorce, study suggests (January 28, 2011) -- Will Academy Award nominees Nicole Kidman and Annette Bening be at higher risk for a divorce if they win the Oscar for best actress next month? A new study finds that Oscar winners in the Best Actress category are at a higher risk of divorce than nominees who do not win. By contrast, Best Actor winners do not experience an increase in the risk of divorce after an Oscar. ... > full story

Cow rumen enzymes for better biofuels (January 28, 2011) -- When it comes to breaking down plant matter and converting it to energy, the cow has it all figured out. Its digestive system allows it to eat more than 150 pounds of plant matter every day. Now researchers report that they have found dozens of previously unknown microbial enzymes in the bovine rumen -- the cow's primary grass-digestion chamber -- that contribute to the breakdown of switchgrass, a renewable biofuel energy source. ... > full story

Exposure to worm infection in the womb may protect against eczema, study suggests (January 28, 2011) -- Exposure to worm infections in the womb may protect a newborn infant from developing eczema, a new study suggests. A large trial in Uganda showed that treating a pregnant woman for worm infections increased her child's chances of developing the allergic skin disease. This research supports the so-called 'hygiene hypothesis', which proposes that exposure to infections in early childhood can modify the immune system and protect the child from allergies later in life. ... > full story

Understanding the human neurosystem by researching locust brains (January 28, 2011) -- Scientists have successfully cultured brain cells taken from the desert locust to delve deeper into the workings of the mammalian neurosystem. Easier to work with than human neurons, the use of these insect neurons allow the team to observe the neurons form a network, providing enormous benefits to researchers. The cells are basic enough to be applicable to any system, including the human neurosystem, researchers say. ... > full story

New therapies and gene target advance the treatment and understanding of hard-to-treat leukemias (January 28, 2011) -- Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the treatment of leukemia through the ongoing development of gene-based targeted therapies. New research provides greater understanding of the optimal use of several BCR-ABL inhibitors for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia, and how a new gene target functions for several myeloid malignancies. ... > full story

Rivers cut deep notches in the Alps' broad glacial valleys (January 28, 2011) -- New research shows that notches carved by rivers at the bottom of glacial valleys in the Swiss Alps survive from one glacial episode to the next, protected in part by the glaciers themselves. ... > full story

Perception of time spent with fathers can lead to bullying (January 28, 2011) -- Do your children think you work too much and don't spend enough time with them? If so, their perception could lead to bullying behavior, according to new research. ... > full story

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