Selasa, 11 Januari 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Tuesday, January 11, 2011

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Mountain glacier melt to contribute 12 centimeters to world sea-level increases by 2100 (January 11, 2011) -- Melt off from small mountain glaciers and ice caps will contribute about 12 centimeters to world sea-level increases by 2100, according to new research. ... > full story

New drug target for prion diseases, 'mad cow' (January 11, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered that plasminogen, a protein used by the body to break up blood clots, speeds up the progress of prion diseases such as mad cow disease. ... > full story

Cassini to probe icy moon Rhea for clues to Saturn rings (January 11, 2011) -- Saturn's icy moon Rhea might seem a strange place to look for clues to understanding the vast majestic rings encircling Saturn. But that's what NASA's Cassini spacecraft plans to do on its next flyby of Rhea. ... > full story

Steering cancer inflammation to inhibit tumor growth and spread (January 11, 2011) -- Most cancer tissues are invaded by inflammatory cells that either stimulate or inhibit the growth of the tumor, depending on what immune cells are involved. Now a Swedish-Belgian research team has shown that a protein that naturally occurs in the body, HRG, inhibits tumor growth and metastasis into secondary organs by activating specific immune cells. ... > full story

Energy limits global economic growth, study finds (January 11, 2011) -- A new study establishes macroecological correlations across countries and over time between per capita gross domestic product and per capita energy use. The authors infer a causal linkage. Correlations between these same two measures and measures of lifestyle quality lead the authors to believe that energy production would have to increase several-fold to support a still-growing world population in the current US lifestyle. ... > full story

Abstinence, heavy drinking, binge drinking associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment (January 11, 2011) -- Previous research regarding the association between alcohol consumption and dementia or cognitive impairment in later life suggests that mild to moderate alcohol consumption might be protective of dementia. However, most of the research has been conducted on subjects already rather elderly at the start of the follow-up. A new study addresses this problem with a follow-up of more than two decades. ... > full story

Couch potatoes beware: Too much time spent watching TV is harmful to heart health (January 11, 2011) -- Spending too much leisure time in front of a TV or computer screen appears to dramatically increase the risk for heart disease and premature death from any cause, perhaps regardless of how much exercise one gets, according to a new study. ... > full story

H1N1 pandemic flu points to vaccine strategy for multiple flu strains (January 11, 2011) -- Using blood samples from patients infected with the 2009 H1N1 strain, researchers developed antibodies that could bind H1N1 viruses from the last decade, as well as the 1918 flu virus and even H5N1. Some of the antibodies protected mice from a lethal viral dose, even 60 hours post-infection. The antibodies could help researchers in designing a vaccine against a wide spectrum of flu viruses. ... > full story

Catfish study reveals multiplicity of species (January 11, 2011) -- An extensive investigation of South American Corydoras catfish, reveals that catfish communities, although containing almost identically colored and patterned fish, could actually contain three or more different species. Establishing for the first time that many species are mimetic, this discovery suggests that in many cases the number of Corydoras catfish species may be higher than previously recognized, with consequent implications for environmentalists charged with protecting environmental diversity and safeguarding the species. ... > full story

Less invasive techniques help manage complications of severe pancreatic disease (January 11, 2011) -- The use of combined treatments for severe acute pancreatitis is safe and effective in managing the disease, resulting in shorter hospitalizations and fewer radiological procedures than standard therapy, according to a new study. In a related study, doctors found that patients with infected pancreatic necrosis were able to avoid surgery through primary conservative treatment, which is in-patient medical treatment. ... > full story

IPv6 guide provides path to secure deployment of next-generation Internet protocol (January 11, 2011) -- As the day draws nearer for the world to run out of the unique addresses that allow us to use the Internet, researchers have issued a guide for managers, network engineers, transition teams and others to help them deploy the next generation Internet protocol (IPv6) securely. ... > full story

For non-whites, geography plays key role in colon cancer screening; Race, ethnicity only part of equation, research finds (January 11, 2011) -- New research has found that whether a person gets screened for colon cancer often depends on where they live in addition to their race or ethnicity. ... > full story

Gesturing while talking helps change your thoughts (January 10, 2011) -- Sometimes it's almost impossible to talk without using your hands. These gestures seem to be important to how we think. They provide a visual clue to our thoughts and, a new theory suggests, may even change our thoughts by grounding them in action. ... > full story

'UnZIPPING' zinc protects hippocampal neurons (January 10, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered that zinc enters cells through specialized protein gates known as ZIP transporters, and removing these ZIP proteins from cells in the hippocampus (an area of the brain that facilitates storing and retrieving memory) significantly protects them from injury. ... > full story

VISTA stares deeply into the blue lagoon (January 10, 2011) -- A new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using the European Southern Observatory's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. ... > full story

Mosquito nets do not work everytime, researchers find (January 10, 2011) -- Long-lasting insecticidal nets have yielded an important breakthrough in malaria prevention, but this does not automatically mean they always work against diseases transmitted by insect bites. Against the transmission of kala-azar disease in India and Nepal, they did not have an effect, researchers have found. ... > full story

With proper planning, selective rather than mass vaccination can reduce spread of flu, say physicists (January 10, 2011) -- During outbreaks of the flu, hospitals often reporting overcrowding, and doctors advise people who have not yet been vaccinated against flu to get their shots. Surprisingly, however, three physicists have developed an unconventional, theoretical strategy for intensive but limited vaccination against infectious diseases (such as flu) that would replace the practice of mass inoculation over a prolonged period. The physicists developed their theory using a technique borrowed from quantum mechanics. ... > full story

Children in formal child care have better language skills, Norwegian study finds (January 10, 2011) -- Fewer children who attend regular formal center- and family-based child care at 1.5 years and 3 years of age were late talkers compared with children who are looked after at home by a parent, child-carer or in an outdoor nursery, according to a new Norwegian study of nearly 20,000 children. ... > full story

Cancer in a single catastrophe: Chromosome crisis common in cancer causation (January 10, 2011) -- Cancer is most often considered to be the result of accumulation of mutations over time -- often over years. Researchers have found that in one in 40 cases, chromosomes explode in a single event, creating hundreds of fragments and many mutations. The new process is particularly common in bone cancers. Although the cause of the shattered chromosomes is not known, the team suggest possible mechanisms to be studied. ... > full story

'Long-shot' discovery may lead to advances in treating anxiety, memory disorders (January 10, 2011) -- A "long shot" discovery holds promise for treating post traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders, and perhaps Alzheimer's disease and other memory impairment diseases. The researchers have discovered what may a completely unexplored drug target for the treatment of anxiety disorders. ... > full story

Researchers developing bio-based polymers that heal cracks (January 10, 2011) -- Researchers are developing biorenewable polymers capable of healing themselves as they degrade and crack. The self-healing properties can increase material lifetimes and reduce maintenance. There are challenges, but researchers think there's potential to develop new and effective materials. ... > full story

Induced pluripotent stem cells from fetal skin cells and embryonic stem cells display comparable potential for derivation of hepatocytes (January 10, 2011) -- Numerous patients suffering from chronic liver diseases are currently receiving inadequate treatment due to the lack of organs donated for transplantation. However, hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could offer an alternative for the future. Scientists compared hepatocytes from embryonic stem cells with hepatocytes from iPS cells and found that their gene expression is very similar. ... > full story

Spinning the unspinnable: Superconducting, energy storing and catalytic yarns based on ancient types of spirals (January 10, 2011) -- Researchers found that by twisting nanotube sheets into various spirals, they absorb greater concentrations of embedded materials, while preserving the flexibility and strength of nanotube fibers. ... > full story

Watch out for that boom: With the America's Cup destination decided, timely study identifies sailing injuries (January 10, 2011) -- Just as the site for the 2013 America's Cup has been announced, a new study highlights that the sport isn't always smooth sailing. Through an on-line survey completed by sailors, researchers have pieced together a report of the injuries that occur on two types of boats -- dinghies (small boats with crews of one or two) and keel boats (larger boats like those used in the America's Cup races with a crew of up to 16). ... > full story

Surprising flares in crab nebula (January 10, 2011) -- Astronomers have recently detected two short-duration gamma-ray pulses coming from the Crab Nebula, which was previously believed to emit radiation at very steady rate. The pulses were fueled by the most energetic particles ever traced to a discrete astronomical object. ... > full story

Extreme obesity associated with higher risk of death for 2009 H1N1 patients (January 10, 2011) -- For those infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, extreme obesity was a powerful risk factor for death, according to an analysis of a public health surveillance database. In a new study, researchers associated extreme obesity with a nearly three-fold increased odds of death from 2009 H1N1 influenza. Half of Californians greater than 20 years of age hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 were obese. ... > full story

When less is more: How mitochondrial signals extend lifespan (January 10, 2011) -- In making your pro-longevity resolutions, like drinking more red wine and maintaining a vibrant social network, here's one you likely forgot: dialing down your mitochondria. It turns out that slowing the engines of these tiny cellular factories could extend your life-an observation relevant not only to aging research but to our understanding of how cells communicate with each another. ... > full story

Treating fractures: Children are not miniature adults, researchers caution (January 10, 2011) -- Treating fractures in children requires special knowledge of growth physiology. Incorrect treatment of bone fractures in child and adolescent patients is less often caused by technical deficiencies than by a misjudgment of the special conditions in this age group. Using the example of treating fractures of the upper limb, researchers in Germany report what should be borne in mind when diagnosing and treating fractures in children, and providing aftercare. They point out possible therapeutic errors and outline strategies to avoid these. ... > full story

Epic journeys of turtles revealed via satellite tracking (January 10, 2011) -- The epic ocean-spanning journeys of the gigantic leatherback turtle in the South Atlantic have been revealed for the first time thanks to groundbreaking research using satellite tracking. Experts in the UK led a five-year study to find out more about these increasingly rare creatures and inform conservation efforts. ... > full story

Genetic mutation responsible for 'gigantism' disease -- or acromegaly -- identified (January 10, 2011) -- An international research team has identified the genetic mutation responsible for a disease known as "gigantism" or acromegaly. ... > full story

Atmosphere's self-cleaning capacity surprisingly stable (January 10, 2011) -- The atmosphere's capacity for cleansing itself of air pollutants is more stable than previously thought, according to a new study ... > full story

Double doses of chicken pox vaccine most effective, researchers find (January 10, 2011) -- When vaccinating children against varicella (chicken pox), researchers have found, two doses are better than one. In fact, the odds of developing chicken pox were 95 percent lower in children who had received two doses of the vaccine compared with those who had received only one dose. ... > full story

Antibiotic resistance is not just genetic (January 10, 2011) -- Genetic resistance to antibiotics is not the only trick bacteria use to resist eradication -- they also have a second defense strategy known as persistence that can kick in. Researchers have now demonstrated for the first time that interplay occurs between the two mechanisms to aid bacterial survival. The findings could lead to novel, effective approaches to treat multi-drug resistant infections. ... > full story

Blame the 'chaperone': Mutation in gene essential for correct protein-processing identified (January 10, 2011) -- Scientists have identified a mutation in a gene that's essential for correct protein-processing in cells. Defects in protein folding are associated with a variety of abnormalities and diseases. ... > full story

From dusty punch cards, new insights into link between cholesterol and heart disease (January 10, 2011) -- A stack of punch cards from a landmark study published in 1966, and the legwork to track down the study's participants years later, has yielded the longest analysis of the effects of lipoproteins on coronary heart disease. The study tracked almost 1,900 people over a 29-year period, which is nearly three times longer than other studies that examine the link between different sizes of high-density lipoprotein particles and heart disease. ... > full story

Most consumers want predictive tests to learn if a disease is in their future (January 10, 2011) -- Consumers may place a high value on information to predict their future health, and may be willing to pay out of pocket to get it. In a national survey, roughly 76 percent of people indicated that they would take a hypothetical predictive test to find out if they will later develop Alzheimer's disease, breast or prostate cancer or arthritis. ... > full story

Dwarf galaxy harbors supermassive black hole (January 10, 2011) -- The discovery of a relatively nearby dwarf galaxy with a supermassive black hole shows astronomers what young galaxies in the very early Universe probably were like. It also greatly strengthens the case for such supermassive black holes forming before the galaxies built up to full size. ... > full story

Link between signaling molecules could point way to therapies for epilepsy, stroke, other diseases (January 10, 2011) -- The finding that two molecules communicate to regulate electrical and chemical activity in nerve cells could be a passport to novel therapies for epilepsy and other diseases. ... > full story

Grape ingredient resveratrol increases beneficial fat hormone (January 10, 2011) -- Researchers have identified a novel way in which resveratrol, a substance in grapes, exerts positive health effects. ... > full story

Liver disease a possible predictor of stroke (January 10, 2011) -- People suffering from fatty liver disease may be three times more likely to suffer a stroke than individuals without fatty liver, according to a new study. The study is the first to find a link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease -- a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver in non drinkers -- and stroke. ... > full story

Extracting cellular 'engines' may aid in understanding mitochondrial diseases (January 10, 2011) -- Medical researchers who crave a means of exploring the genetic culprits behind a host of neuromuscular disorders may have just had their wish granted by a research team that has performed surgery on single cells to extract and examine their mitochondria. ... > full story

Brain scans show children with ADHD have faulty off-switch for mind-wandering (January 10, 2011) -- Brain scans of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have shown for the first time why people affected by the condition sometimes have such difficulty in concentrating. The study may explain why parents often say that their child can maintain concentration when they are doing something that interests them, but struggles with boring tasks. ... > full story

Climate change to continue to year 3000 in best case scenarios, research predicts (January 10, 2011) -- New research indicates the impact of rising carbon dioxide levels in Earth's atmosphere will cause unstoppable effects to the climate for at least the next 1,000 years. ... > full story

Measles viral protein movement described (January 10, 2011) -- Researchers have shown that proteins on the surface of a cell twist a viral protein into position, allowing the virus to start infection and cause disease, all in a movement as graceful as a ballroom dance. ... > full story

Herpes virus' tactical maneuver visualized in 3-D (January 10, 2011) -- For the first time, researchers have developed a 3-D picture of a herpes virus protein interacting with a key part of the human cellular machinery, enhancing our understanding of how it hijacks human cells to spread infection and opening up new possibilities for stepping in to prevent or treat infection. This discovery uncovers one of the many tactical maneuvers employed by the virus. ... > full story

Cellular power plants' 'import business' revealed (January 10, 2011) -- Scientists in Germany have discovered a new signaling path in cells: a mechanism which enables the transport of proteins into mitochondria to be adjusted depending on the current metabolic state of the cell. ... > full story

Biofuel grasslands better for birds than ethanol staple corn, researchers find (January 10, 2011) -- Developing biofuel from native perennials instead of corn in the Midwest's rolling grasslands would better protect threatened bird populations, research suggests. Federal mandates and market forces both are expected to promote rising biofuel production, but the environmental consequences of turning more acreage over to row crops for fuel are a serious concern. ... > full story

The 'mad' Egyptian scholar who proved Aristotle wrong (January 10, 2011) -- Ibn al-Haytham's 11th-century Book of Optics, which was published exactly 1000 years ago, is often cited alongside Newton's Principia as one of the most influential books in physics. Yet very little is known about the writer, considered by many to be the father of modern optics. ... > full story

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