Selasa, 28 Desember 2010

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Tuesday, December 28, 2010

Welcome to another edition of ScienceDaily's email newsletter. You can change your subscription options or unsubscribe at any time.

Bees one of many pollinators infected by virus implicated in colony collapse disorder (December 28, 2010) -- Researchers have found that native pollinators, like wild bees and wasps, are infected by the same viral diseases as honey bees and that these viruses are transmitted via pollen. This study provides new insights into viral infections in native pollinators, suggesting that viral diseases may be key factors impacting pollinator populations. ... > full story

Not all infant formulas are alike: Differential effects on weight gain (December 28, 2010) -- New findings reveal that weight gain of formula-fed infants is influenced by the type of formula the infant is consuming. The findings highlight the need to understand the long-term influences of infant formula composition on feeding behavior, growth and metabolic health. ... > full story

Some brain tumors mimic the genetic program of germline cells (December 28, 2010) -- Scientists have discovered that some brain tumors in larvae of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster use the genetic program of germline cells to grow. The removal of some of these genes leads to healthy brains. This finding demonstrates that these genes are crucial for tumor development. ... > full story

Features of the metabolic syndrome common in persons with psoriasis (December 28, 2010) -- Individuals with psoriasis have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, according to a new study. ... > full story

Choose a movie's plot -- while you watch it (December 28, 2010) -- Turbulence, a new film, uses complicated video coding procedures that allow the viewer to change the course of a movie in mid-plot. In theory, that means each new theater audience can see its very own version of a film. ... > full story

Prayer can help people handle difficult emotions, study suggests (December 28, 2010) -- Those who choose to pray find personalized comfort during hard times, according to a sociologist. The 75 percent of Americans who pray on a weekly basis do so to manage a range of negative situations and emotions -- illness, sadness, trauma and anger -- but just how they find relief has gone unconsidered by researchers. ... > full story

Structure of key molecule in immune system provides clues for designing drugs (December 28, 2010) -- A research team has deciphered a key step in an evolutionarily old branch of the immune response. This system, called complement, comprises a network of proteins that "complement" the work of antibodies in destroying foreign invaders. Complement proteins mark both bacterial and dying host cells for elimination by the body's cellular cleanup services and have been implicated in at least 30 diseases. The findings provide a molecular scaffold for designing novel drug therapeutics. ... > full story

New study upends thinking about how liver disease develops (December 28, 2010) -- In the latest of a series of related papers, researchers present a new and more definitive explanation of how fibrotic cells form, multiply and eventually destroy the human liver, resulting in cirrhosis. In doing so, the findings upend the standing of a long-presumed marker for multiple fibrotic diseases and reveal the existence of a previously unknown kind of inflammatory white blood cell. ... > full story

New cell biological mechanism that regulates protein stability in cells uncovered (December 28, 2010) -- The cell signaling pathway known as Wnt, commonly activated in cancers, causes internal membranes within a healthy cell to imprison an enzyme that is vital in degrading proteins, preventing the enzyme from doing its job and affecting the stability of many proteins within the cell, researchers have found. ... > full story

Outcomes after recurrence of oral cancer vary by timing, site (December 28, 2010) -- Patients who have recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma tend to do worse if the new cancer appears at the same site early or if it appears in the lymph nodes six months or longer after initial treatment, according to a new study. ... > full story

Sardine Run: Headlong race for survival of the species (December 28, 2010) -- Every year between May and July, enormous shoals of the sardine Sardinops sagax give a splendid show as they migrate off the coasts of South Africa, performing their Sardine Run. They are subjected to relentless attack by predators of all kinds -- sharks, dolphins, sea lions, whales, birds, fishermen. Although well known to the general public, this wholesale migration is still not well understood scientifically. Researchers have now examined the different hypotheses put forward to explain the event. ... > full story

Bonding with newborn baby: Once upon a time in the Intensive Care Unit ... (December 28, 2010) -- The first few days after birth is an important time when babies learn to recognize the sound of their parents' voice and the parents in turn bond with their children. However, the separation between parents and newborns admitted to the NICU can disrupt the early development of this relationship. Innovative research suggests reading to newborns in the NICU allows parents to feel closer to their babies during this difficult period. ... > full story

How often do giant black holes become hyperactive? (December 27, 2010) -- A new study from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory tells scientists how often the biggest black holes have been active over the last few billion years. This discovery clarifies how supermassive black holes grow and could have implications for how the giant black hole at the center of the Milky Way will behave in the future. ... > full story

Human immune system has emergency backup plan (December 27, 2010) -- New research reveals that the immune system has an effective backup plan to protect the body from infection when the "master regulator" of the body's innate immune system fails. ... > full story

Platinum and blue light combine to combat cancer (December 27, 2010) -- When it comes to health care blue lights, are usually most useful on the top of ambulances but now new research has found a way to use blue light to activate what could be a highly potent platinum-based cancer treatment. ... > full story

A new surgical tool -- the IKEA pencil (December 27, 2010) -- IKEA pencils are better at marking out cuts in the bone for facial and head surgery than traditional felt tipped pens, say two surgeons. ... > full story

New kind of blast-resistant glass (December 27, 2010) -- Engineers are working to develop a blast-resistant glass that is lighter, thinner, and colorless, yet tough enough to withstand the force of an explosion, earthquake or hurricane winds. Today's blast-resistant windows are made of pure polymer layers. This new design is a plastic composite with an interlayer of polymer reinforced with glass fibers. It's only a quarter-inch thick. ... > full story

In the evolutionary mating game, brawn and stealth rule, scientists find (December 27, 2010) -- When prowling for a hook up, it's not always the good-looker who gets the girl. In fact, in a certain species of South American fish, brawn and stealth beat out colorful and refined almost every time. ... > full story

Genetic variant that can lead to severe impulsivity identified (December 27, 2010) -- Scientists have found that a genetic variant of a brain receptor molecule may contribute to violently impulsive behavior when people who carry it are under the influence of alcohol. ... > full story

Compound that prevents the growth of prostate cancer cells identified (December 27, 2010) -- Researchers have demonstrated that an antibiotic called "monensin" prevents the growth of prostate cancer cells. Monensin is used in the meat and dairy industry, for example. ... > full story

Supercomputing research opens doors for drug discovery (December 27, 2010) -- A quicker and cheaper technique to scan molecular databases could put scientists on the fast track to developing new drug treatments. ... > full story

Study identifies genetic mutations associated with tumor of adrenal gland (December 27, 2010) -- Analysis has identified variations of a gene that are associated with a type of tumor that forms within the adrenal gland, according a new study. The age group in which these variations were found are frequently excluded from genetic screening models for this type of tumor. ... > full story

Decline of West Coast fog brought higher coastal temperatures last 60 years (December 27, 2010) -- Summertime fog, a common feature along the West Coast, has decline since 1950 while coastal temperatures have increased slightly, new research shows. ... > full story

Electronic medical records not always linked to better care in hospitals, study finds (December 27, 2010) -- Use of electronic health records by hospitals across the United States has had only a limited effect on improving the quality of medical care, according to a new study. ... > full story

Learning to read the genome: Most detailed annotation of fruit-fly genome points way to understanding all organisms' genomes (December 27, 2010) -- Scientists have recently made major advances in understanding the complex relationships between the Drosophila genome, as recorded by DNA and RNA base pairs, and the patterns and physical organization of its chromosomes. These insights into reading the genome will apply to many organisms, including human beings. ... > full story

Protein targeted to stop melanoma tumor growth (December 27, 2010) -- Halting the growth of melanoma tumors by targeting the MIC-1 protein that promotes blood vessel development in tumors may lead to better treatment of this invasive and deadly cancer, according to new research. ... > full story

Adapting agriculture to climate change: New global search to save endangered crop wild relatives (December 27, 2010) -- The Global Crop Diversity Trust has announced a major global search to systematically find, gather, catalog, use and save the wild relatives of wheat, rice, beans, potato, barley, lentils, chickpea and other essential food crops, in order to help protect global food supplies against the imminent threat of climate change, and strengthen future food security. ... > full story

Circulating tumor cells predicted recurrence, death in patients with early-stage breast cancer (December 27, 2010) -- The presence of one to four circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of early-stage breast cancer patients almost doubled patient's risk of cancer relapse and death, and five or more CTCs increased recurrence by 400 percent and death by 300 percent, according to Phase III results of the SUCCESS trial. These cells were found in patients after surgery but before chemotherapy treatment. ... > full story

Unlocking the secrets of a plant’s light sensitivity (December 27, 2010) -- Plants are very sensitive to light conditions, in part due to a signal that activates special photoreceptors that regulate growth, metabolism, and physiological development. Scientists believe that these light signals control plant growth and development by activating or inhibiting plant hormones. New research has altered the prevailing theory on how light signals and hormones interact. The findings could have implications for food crop production. ... > full story

Treating women’s depression might help them lose weight (December 27, 2010) -- For many women coping with obesity and depression, new research finds that improving your mood might be the link to losing weight. ... > full story

Global rivers emit three times IPCC estimates of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (December 27, 2010) -- Biologists have demonstrated that streams and rivers receiving nitrogen from urban and agricultural land uses are a significant source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. ... > full story

New rule predicts risk of stroke, death from surgery that prevents it (December 27, 2010) -- It's a medical Catch-22: carotid artery surgery can itself cause stroke, but so can asymptomatic carotid disease if left untreated. Researchers have now developed a clinical risk prediction rule using factors such as sex, race and health history to assess the danger the surgery poses, while a modified version will help patients make a more fully informed choice about whether to have the procedure. ... > full story

Fighting cancer and steering immune reactions: New mechanism for reversible proteasome inhibition (December 27, 2010) -- In their function as cellular recycling plants, proteasomes fulfill a life-sustaining role in all cells -- including cancer cells. When the proteasomes become inhibited, cells suffocate in their own waste. A recently discovered reversible proteasome inhibition may provide the key to more specific anti-cancer drugs and to controlling rejection reactions in transplantations. ... > full story

Poor breast cancer prognosis associated with presence of circulating tumor, cancer stem cells (December 27, 2010) -- Metastatic breast cancer patients whose blood contains circulating tumor cells before or after treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and blood stem cell transplant have shorter survival periods, according to a new study. ... > full story

Breakthrough towards lab-on-chip system for fast detection of single nucleotide variations in DNA (December 27, 2010) -- Scientists have developed critical components of a biomedical lab-on-chip sensor enabling fast detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA, such as a miniaturized pump for on-chip generation of high pressures, a micropillar filter optimized for DNA separation achieving world-record resolution, and a SNP detector allowing on-chip detection using very small sample volumes. ... > full story

Recovering from job loss: Most report few long-term psychological effects, study finds (December 27, 2010) -- Losing a job is a profoundly distressing experience, but the unemployed may be more resilient than previously believed -- the vast majority eventually end up as satisfied with life as they were before they lost their jobs, according to a new analysis. ... > full story

Ever-sharp urchin teeth may yield tools that never need honing (December 26, 2010) -- To survive in a tumultuous environment, sea urchins literally eat through stone, using their teeth to carve out nooks where the spiny creatures hide from predators and protect themselves from the crashing surf on the rocky shores and tide pools where they live. The rock-boring behavior is astonishing, scientists agree, but what is truly remarkable is that, despite constant grinding and scraping on stone, urchin teeth never, ever get dull. The secret of their ever-sharp qualities has puzzled scientists for decades, but now a new report by scientists has peeled back the toothy mystery. ... > full story

Part of brain that suppresses instinct identified (December 26, 2010) -- New research is revealing which regions in the brain fire up when we suppress an automatic behavior such as the urge to look at other people in an elevator. Researchers showed -- for the first time -- an increase in signal from the left inferior frontal cortex when study participants were confronted by a conflict between an image and a word superimposed on the image. ... > full story

Mammalian aging process linked to overactive cellular pathway (December 26, 2010) -- Researchers have linked hyperactivity in the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 cellular pathway to reduced ketone production in the liver, which is a well-defined physiological trait of aging in mice. During sleep or other times of low carbohydrate intake, the liver converts fatty acids to ketones, which are vital sources of energy during fasting, especially for the heart and brain. As animals age, their ability to produce ketones in response to fasting declines. ... > full story

Powerful new defibrillator: Minimally invasive surgeries mean smaller scars, quicker recovery (December 26, 2010) -- St. Michael's Hospital has become the first in Ontario to implant a small but powerful new defibrillator into a patient's chest. The defibrillator – about the size of a Zippo lighter – is the smallest available in terms of surface area and can deliver the highest level of energy, 40 joules. ... > full story

Affordable alternative to mega-laser X-FEL (December 26, 2010) -- Stanford University has an X-FEL (X-ray free electron laser) with a price tag of hundreds of millions. It provides images of "molecules in action," using a kilometer-long electron accelerator. Researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology have developed an alternative that can do many of the same things. However, this alternative fits on a tabletop, and costs around half a million euros. The researchers have jokingly called it "the poor man's X-FEL." ... > full story

Sovereign's head identified after more than four centuries (December 26, 2010) -- The skeletons of kings and queens lying in mass graves in the Royal Basilica of Saint-Denis in Paris could finally have the solemn funeral ceremonies they deserve, say experts. ... > full story

Drifting fish larvae allow marine reserves to rebuild fisheries (December 26, 2010) -- Marine ecologists have shown for the first time that tiny fish larvae can drift with ocean currents and "re-seed" fish stocks significant distances away -- more than 100 miles in a new study from Hawaii. ... > full story

Robotic surgery for head and neck cancer shows promise (December 26, 2010) -- Less-invasive robotic surgery for upper airway and digestive track malignant tumors is as effective as other minimally invasive surgical techniques based on patient function and survival, according to researchers. ... > full story

Potential target for breast cancer therapy (December 26, 2010) -- Overexpression or hyperactivation of ErbB cell-surface receptors drives the growth of many breast cancers. Drugs, like Herceptin, that block the receptors' signals halt tumor progression in some patients. However, not all patients' tumors respond, with some becoming resistant over time. Researchers found a protein called P-Rex1 is crucial for signal transmission from ErbB receptors and is overexpressed in nearly 60 percent of breast cancer samples tested. ... > full story

Which comes first: Exercise-induced asthma or obesity? (December 26, 2010) -- Obese people are more likely to report exercise as a trigger for asthma. Of 673 people evaluated in a new study, 71 percent of participants reported exercise-induced asthma. ... > full story

Stellar success for unprecedented close-up image of the Sun's fiery atmosphere (December 26, 2010) -- Astrophysicists have captured an unprecedented close-up image of the Sun's fiery atmosphere -- and, in doing so, have won a major new global award. ... > full story

Imagine your future self: Will it help you save money? (December 26, 2010) -- Why do people choose present consumption over their long-term financial interests? A new study finds that consumers have trouble feeling connected to their future selves. ... > full story

Copyright 1995-2010 © ScienceDaily LLC. All rights reserved. Terms of use.

This message was sent from ScienceDaily to It was sent from: ScienceDaily, 1 Research Court, Suite 450, Rockville, MD 20850. You can modify/update your subscription via the link below.

Email Marketing by
iContact - Try It Free!

To update/change your profile click here