Senin, 04 April 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Monday, April 4, 2011

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Four new genes for Alzheimer's disease risk identified (April 4, 2011) -- Researchers have identified four new genes linked to Alzheimer's disease. Each gene individually adds to the risk of having this common form of dementia later in life. The findings offer new insight into the underlying causes of Alzheimer's disease. ... > full story

Avoiding or controlling diabetes may reduce cancer risk and mortality (April 4, 2011) -- Diabetes is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer in men but with higher risk of other cancers in both men and women, according to new research. The data also showed an association between diabetes and higher cancer mortality rates. ... > full story

Stellar nursery: The rose-red glow of star formation (April 4, 2011) -- The vivid red cloud in a new image from the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope is a region of glowing hydrogen surrounding the star cluster NGC 371. This stellar nursery lies in our neighboring galaxy, the Small Magellanic Cloud. ... > full story

The five hospital factors that affect heart attack survival (April 4, 2011) -- A new study looks at why there is such a big difference in the mortality rates among patients treated for heart attacks in hospitals across the United States. ... > full story

Getting the point: Real-time monitoring of atomic-microscope probes adjusts for wear (April 4, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a way to measure the wear and degradation of the microscopic probes used to study nanoscale structures in situ and as it's happening. Their technique can both dramatically speed up and improve the accuracy of the most precise and delicate nanoscale measurements done with atomic force microscopy. ... > full story

New research demonstrates language learners' creativity (April 4, 2011) -- New research shows that language learning goes well beyond simple imitation, and in fact that language learners are quite creative and remarkably smart. Not only are learners able to generalize grammatical restrictions to new words in a category -- in this case, made-up adjectives -- but they also do not learn these restrictions in situations where they can be attributed to some irrelevant factor. ... > full story

Rare discovery of plant genus (April 4, 2011) -- Usually, when a new species is discovered it is associated with one species. It is rare to find two new species belonging to the same new genus. Yasunia is one of those rare cases. ... > full story

Metabolic syndrome may increase risk for liver cancer (April 4, 2011) -- Scientists have confirmed that metabolic syndrome, a constellation of conditions that increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes, may also increase the risk of the two most common types of liver cancer. ... > full story

Cholesterol regulator plays key role in development of liver scarring, cirrhosis (April 4, 2011) -- Researchers have demonstrated that a key regulator of cholesterol and fat metabolism in the liver also plays an important role in the development of liver fibrosis -- the build-up of collagen scar tissue that can develop into cirrhosis. ... > full story

ADHD and prenatal alcohol exposure: Comparing profiles of learning and memory impairments in two groups of children (April 4, 2011) -- A new study has compared the verbal learning and memory performance of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) with that of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The children with PAE had initial problems with learning information, reflecting inefficient encoding of verbal material. The children with ADHD had difficulty retaining information over time, reflecting a deficit in retrieval of learned material. ... > full story

A measurement first: 'Noise thermometry' system measures Boltzmann Constant (April 4, 2011) -- Researchers have for the first time used an apparatus that relies on the "noise" of jiggling electrons to make highly accurate measurements of the Boltzmann constant, an important value for many scientific calculations. The technique is simpler and more compact than other methods for measuring the constant and could advance international efforts to revamp the world's scientific measurement system. ... > full story

Chasing the pot of gold: Gambling subtypes and treatment outcomes (April 4, 2011) -- Approximately two million adults in the United States meet criteria for pathological gambling, and another four to six million are considered problem gamblers, according to the National Council on Problem Gambling. A new study reveals that gambling addiction treatment is not one-size-fits-all, but it is difficult to predict which style of treatment is best for the various forms of gambling addiction. ... > full story

How do neurons in the retina encode what we 'see'? (April 3, 2011) -- The moment we open our eyes, we perceive the world with apparent ease. But the question of how neurons in the retina encode what we "see" has been a tricky one. A key obstacle to understanding how our brain functions is that its components -- neurons -- respond in highly nonlinear ways to complex stimuli, making stimulus-response relationships extremely difficult to discern. Now a team of physicists has developed a general mathematical framework that makes optimal use of limited measurements, bringing them a step closer to deciphering the "language of the brain." ... > full story

Vitamin D levels linked with health of blood vessels (April 3, 2011) -- A lack of vitamin D, even in generally healthy people, is linked with stiffer arteries and an inability of blood vessels to relax, researchers have found. ... > full story

Getting closer to a better biocontrol for garden pests (April 3, 2011) -- Scientists have found strains of bacteria that could one day be used as environmentally friendly treatments to keep caterpillars and other pests out of gardens and cultivated fields. ... > full story

‘SKIP’-ing splicing forces tumor cells to undergo programmed cell death (April 3, 2011) -- When cells find themselves in a tight spot, the cell cycle regulator p21 halts the cell cycle, buying cells time to repair the damage, or if all else fails, to initiate programmed cell death. In contrast to other stress-induced genes, which dispense with the regular transcriptional entourage, p21Cip1 still requires SKIP, a transcription elongation factor that also helps with the editing of transcripts, to be expressed, found researchers. ... > full story

Next-generation computers: Advance in microchannel manufacturing opens new industry applications (April 3, 2011) -- Engineers have invented a new way to use surface-mount adhesives in the production of low-temperature, microchannel heat exchangers - an advance that will make this promising technology much less expensive for many commercial applications - including next-generation computers, lasers, consumer electronics, automobile cooling systems, fuel processors, miniature heat pumps and more. ... > full story

More organs for transplant when ICU docs help take care of brain dead donors, study finds (April 3, 2011) -- More than twice as many lungs and nearly 50 percent more kidneys could be recovered for transplant operations if intensive care physicians were to work with organ procurement organization coordinators to monitor and manage donor bodies after brain death has occurred, according to a new analysis. ... > full story

Novel technique reveals how glaciers sculpted their valleys (April 3, 2011) -- How do you reconstruct the landscape that a glacier has obliterated? Geologists have developed a new technique to determine the life history of minerals now on the surface but that once were under a kilometer of rock, and thus to reconstruct the landform history of a mountain range. The work can help us understand how glaciers are changing the landscape today. ... > full story

Heart drug cuts prostate cancer risk, holds potential for therapeutic use (April 3, 2011) -- New research suggests that men using the cardiac drug, digoxin, have a 24 percent lower risk for prostate cancer. The scientists say further research about the discovery may lead to use of the drug, or new ones that work the same way, to treat the cancer. ... > full story

DNA of 50 breast cancer patients decoded (April 3, 2011) -- In the single largest cancer genomics investigation reported to date, scientists have sequenced the whole genomes of tumors from 50 breast cancer patients and compared them to the matched DNA of the same patients' healthy cells. They uncovered incredible complexity in the cancer genomes, but also got a glimpse of new routes toward personalized medicine. ... > full story

New lung cancer staging system (TNM 7) better predicts local/regional recurrence, study shows (April 3, 2011) -- The new TNM 7 lung cancer staging system seems to be a better predictor of local or regional recurrence of lung cancer following surgery, according to a new study. ... > full story

Ants and termites boost dryland wheat yields (April 3, 2011) -- Ants and termites have a significant positive impact on crop yields in dryland agriculture, according to scientists in Australia. ... > full story

When washing becomes a compulsion (April 3, 2011) -- Obsessive-compulsive disorder is often diagnosed too late in children and adolescents. Experts point out that appropriate early recognition and treatment can positively affect the course of the disease. ... > full story

Optical transistor advance: Physicists rotate beams of light with semiconductor (April 2, 2011) -- Physicists have managed to control the rotation of light by means of a ultra thin semiconductor. The advance could potentially be used to create a transistor that works with light instead of electrical current. ... > full story

Engineered protein fragment blocks the AIDS virus from entering cells (April 2, 2011) -- In what could be a potential breakthrough in the battle against AIDS and a major development in the rational design of new drugs, scientists have engineered a new protein that prevents the virus from entering cells. ... > full story

Skywalker enzyme ensures optimal communication between neurons (April 2, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered the mechanism that ensures neurons can continue to send the right signals for long consecutive periods -- a process that is disrupted in neurological diseases such as Parkinson's. They discovered that an enzyme called Skywalker controls the subtle balance in communication. ... > full story

Soy increases radiation's ability to kill lung cancer cells, study shows (April 2, 2011) -- A component in soybeans increases radiation's ability to kill lung cancer cells, according to a new study. ... > full story

Manage biological invasions like natural disasters, biologists say (April 2, 2011) -- Biological invasions are often more economically damaging than natural disasters and warrant correspondingly large investments in preparedness and response planning, according to biologists. Such measures seem absent in most developed nations. ... > full story

Older and stronger: Progressive resistance training can build muscle, increase strength as we age (April 2, 2011) -- It's often thought that older adults must tolerate the strength and muscle loss that come with age. But analyses of current research reveal that not only can we fight the battle of strength and muscle loss as we age, we can even build muscle and strength well into our golden years. ... > full story

New nanomaterial can detect and neutralize explosives (April 2, 2011) -- Scientists have described the development and successful initial tests of a spray-on material that both detects and renders harmless the genre of terrorist explosives responsible for government restrictions on liquids that can be carried onboard airliners. It is an ink-like explosive detector/neutralizer. ... > full story

Insulin could be Alzheimer's therapy (April 2, 2011) -- A low dose of insulin has been found to suppress the expression in the blood of four precursor proteins involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, according to new clinical research. ... > full story

When food is scarce, hungry female spiders alter mating preferences (April 2, 2011) -- Weather and environmental change can bring alterations -- and scarcity -- in food resources. In looking at how such changes might affect mating choices and subsequent reproduction, researchers studied how hunger affects the mating preferences of common female spiders. ... > full story

Surprising finding from smoke inhalation study (April 2, 2011) -- A new study includes some unexpected findings about the immune systems of smoke-inhalation patients. Contrary to expectations, patients who died from their injuries had lower inflammatory responses in their lungs than patients who survived. ... > full story

Sun and shade leaves play different roles in tree canopies (April 2, 2011) -- "Outer" tree canopy leaves influence the sunlight reaching inner canopy leaves by changing their shape, says a new study. ... > full story

Out of work? Your resume is no good here: Unemployed Americans face discrimination, study finds (April 2, 2011) -- Through a series of simple experiments, researchers found that unemployed Americans face discrimination that is unrelated to their skills or conditions of departure. ... > full story

Novel nanowires boost fuel cell efficiency (April 1, 2011) -- Engineers have created a new fuel cell catalyst system using nanowires made of a novel material that boosts long-term performance by 2.4 times compared to today's technology. The nanowires are made of a metal alloy known as a bulk metallic glass and have high surface areas, thereby exposing more of the catalyst. They also maintain their activity longer than traditional fuel cell catalyst systems. ... > full story

How brain's memory center repairs damage from head injury (April 1, 2011) -- Researchers have described for the first time how the brain's memory center repairs itself following severe trauma. ... > full story

Green toad inhabited Iberian Peninsula one million years ago (April 1, 2011) -- Although the green toad (Bufo viridis) can today be found all over Central Europe, Asia, Africa, and even on the Balearic Islands, it became extinct in the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the Early Pleistocene (1.1 million years ago). This has been demonstrated by an international research study, with Spanish participation, which has discovered the first green frog fossil in Murcia. ... > full story

Three square meals a day paired with lean protein help people feel full during weight loss (April 1, 2011) -- Eating fewer, regular-sized meals with higher amounts of lean protein can make one feel more full than eating smaller, more frequent meals, according to new research. ... > full story

Some populations of Fraser River salmon more likely to survive climate change (April 1, 2011) -- Populations of Fraser River sockeye salmon are so fine-tuned to their environment that any further environmental changes caused by climate change could lead to the disappearance of some populations, while others may be less affected, says a new study. ... > full story

Many US women have children by more than one man (April 1, 2011) -- The first national study of the prevalence of multiple partner fertility shows that 28 percent of all US women with two or more children have children by more than one man. ... > full story

World first: Calculations with 14 quantum bits (April 1, 2011) -- Quantum physicists have now achieved controlled entanglement of 14 quantum bits (qubits) and, thus, realized the largest quantum register that has ever been produced. With this experiment the scientists have not only come closer to the realization of a quantum computer but they also show surprising results for the quantum mechanical phenomenon of entanglement. ... > full story

Genetic defect suggests high blood pressure may come from mother (April 1, 2011) -- A mitochondrial defect inherited from mothers is linked to high blood pressure in one Chinese family. The finding may provide new insights into maternally transmitted hypertension. ... > full story

Cat allergy vaccine safe and effective, study suggests (April 1, 2011) -- Mark Larché and his research team have developed a cat allergy vaccine which is effective and safe with almost no side effects. ... > full story

Probiotic bacteria could help treat Crohn's disease (April 1, 2011) -- New research suggests that infection with a probiotic strain of E. coli bacteria could help treat an reduce the negative effects of another E. coli infection that may be associated with Crohn's disease. ... > full story

Salt-seeking spacecraft arrives at launch site; NASA instrument will measure ocean surface salinity (April 1, 2011) -- An international spacecraft that will take NASA's first space-based measurements of ocean surface salinity has arrived at its launch site at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The Aquarius/SAC-D mission will provide scientists with a key missing variable in satellite observations of Earth that links ocean circulation, the global balance of freshwater and climate. ... > full story

Misreading faces tied to child social anxiety (April 1, 2011) -- Children suffering from extreme social anxiety are trapped in a nightmare of misinterpreted facial expressions: They confuse angry faces with sad ones, a new study shows. ... > full story

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