Rabu, 06 April 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Wednesday, April 6, 2011

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Leptin restores fertility, may improve bone health in lean women; Treatment could help athletes, women with eating disorders (April 6, 2011) -- Women with extremely low body fat, including runners and dancers, as well as women with eating disorders, are prone to develop hypothalamic amenorrhea, a condition in which their menstrual periods cease, triggering such serious problems as infertility and osteoporosis. ... > full story

Scientists develop new technology for stroke rehabilitation (April 6, 2011) -- Devices which could be used to rehabilitate the arms and hands of people who have experienced a stroke have been developed by researchers in the UK. ... > full story

Can diabetes or lipid-lowering medications treat addiction? (April 6, 2011) -- Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are commonly prescribed to treat Type 2 diabetes, while fibrates are prescribed to modulate lipid levels in patients to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. These drugs work by binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Another effect of TZDs and fibrates is to raise leptin levels, an effect that may reduce appetite. ... > full story

Mexican migrants to the US risk 'clinically significant' mental-health problems, study finds (April 6, 2011) -- Mexicans who migrate to the United States are far more likely to experience significant depression and anxiety than individuals who do not immigrate, a new study has found. ... > full story

Opioids now most prescribed class of medications in America (April 6, 2011) -- Two reports by addiction researchers show a drastic shift in prescribing patterns impacting the magnitude of opioid substance abuse in America. The reports recommend a comprehensive effort to reduce public health risks while improving patient care, including better training for prescribers, pain management treatment assessment, personal responsibility and public education. ... > full story

Genetic clues to major cause of kidney disease worldwide (April 6, 2011) -- For the first time, researchers have found five regions in the human genome that increase susceptibility to immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy, a major cause of kidney failure worldwide -- systematically identifying those that point to a tendency for IgA nephropathy, or a protection against it. ... > full story

Hookah use widespread among college students; Study reveals mistaken perception of safety in potential gateway drug (April 6, 2011) -- Despite a growing number of cities instituting smoking bans across the country, hookah bars are cropping up everywhere -- from chic downtown cafes to locations near college campuses, where they've found a loyal customer base in young adults. A new study sheds light on the increasingly popular pastime, and the results are discouraging. ... > full story

Repulsion more important than cohesion in embryonic tissue separation (April 6, 2011) -- Until now, adherence was thought to be the principle force responsible for the separation of the ectoderm from the mesoderm in embryonic cells. But by using high resolution imaging, researchers have now discovered that, although embryonic cells of different types will temporarily adhere when they touch, they then invariably pull apart rather violently, suggesting that direct contact between two "foreign" cells triggers a "repulsive signal." ... > full story

Giving teachers bonuses for student achievement undermines student learning, study finds (April 6, 2011) -- Recent efforts to improve teacher performance by linking pay to student achievement have failed because such programs often rely on metrics that were never intended to help determine teacher pay. These systems make it easy for policymakers to obtain consistent measures of student and teacher performance, but the same testing regimes also make it easy for educators to game incentive systems by coaching students for exams rather than teaching them to master subject matter. ... > full story

Chimp, bonobo study sheds light on the social brain (April 5, 2011) -- Why our two closest living primate relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, have widely different social traits, despite belonging to the same genus, has long been a puzzle. Now, a comparative analysis of their brains shows neuroanatomical differences that may be responsible for these behaviors, from the aggression more typical of chimpanzees to the social tolerance of bonobos. ... > full story

Modern targeted drug plus old malaria pill serve a one-two punch in advanced cancer patients (April 5, 2011) -- Researchers may have found a way to turn an adaptive cellular response into a liability for cancer cells, by treating a group of patients with several different types of advanced cancers with temsirolimus, a molecularly targeted cancer drug that blocks nutrient uptake, plus hydroxychloroquine, an anti-malarial drug that inhibits autophagy. This regimen halted tumor growth in two-thirds of the patients. ... > full story

Toward a solution to nerve agent exposure: Chemist uses supercomputers to test reagents for new treatments (April 5, 2011) -- A chemist is harnessing the power of supercomputing systems to help develop a new drug that will regenerate a critical enzyme in the human body that "ages" after a person is exposed to deadly organophosphorus nerve agents. ... > full story

Protein found to be the link missing between HPV infection and cervical cancer development (April 5, 2011) -- Most women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), which can cause cervical cancer -- yet few develop the cancer. Now researchers believe they have found the missing link explaining why: activation of the beta-catenin oncogene. ... > full story

Vitamin A derivative can inhibit early forms of breast cancer, researchers show (April 5, 2011) -- A nutrient found in carrots and sweet potatoes may prove key to fighting breast cancer at early stages, according to a new study. ... > full story

Getting to the root of fatty liver disease (April 5, 2011) -- Researchers have identified a molecular switch that appears to be a common feature in the development of fatty liver disease. The discovery made in mice is consistent with data from human patients, suggesting that it may provide an underlying explanation for the development of fatty liver in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome. ... > full story

How materialistic advertising messages negatively shape the female body image, study finds (April 5, 2011) -- A new study is the first to examine the impact of materialistic messages and values -- the desire for financial success and an affluent lifestyle on women's feelings about their own body. ... > full story

Genomic signature in post-menopausal women may explain why pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk (April 5, 2011) -- Women who have children, particularly early in life, have a lower lifetime risk of breast cancer compared with women who do not. Now, researchers have identified a gene expression pattern in breast tissue that differs between post-menopausal women who had children and post-menopausal women who did not. The results will help scientists understand why pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk. ... > full story

Cellular feast or famine: How cells decide whether they have enough fat (April 5, 2011) -- Not all cholesterol is bad. Every cell requires it for growth -- they either have to get cholesterol somewhere or they die. In a new study, researchers found that a protein sensor known to balance cholesterol sources can also access a previously under-appreciated cellular fat storage depot. ... > full story

Students around the world report being addicted to media, study finds (April 5, 2011) -- College students around the world report that they are 'addicted' to media, describing in vivid terms their cravings, their anxieties and their depression when they have to abstain from using cell phones, social networking sites, mp3 player. ... > full story

New method delivers Alzheimer’s drug to the brain (April 5, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a new method for delivering complex drugs directly to the brain, a necessary step for treating diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Motor Neuron Disease and Muscular Dystrophy. ... > full story

Pedestrians injured by the windshield frame in car crashes (April 5, 2011) -- Pedestrian disability and fatality as a consequence of car crashes is a large global health problem. New research from Sweden now shows that upper-body collision with the car's lower windscreen is a common cause of severe injuries and deaths in adults, especially in those accidents where the head is struck. Children injured by cars are mostly hit by the hood. ... > full story

People willing to pay painful price for friendship (April 5, 2011) -- People will suffer more pain for their close friends than for their acquaintances and sometimes more than they would for themselves, a scientist has found. ... > full story

Facial structures of men and women have become more similar over time (April 5, 2011) -- New research shows that they really don't make women like they used to, at least in Spain. The study, which examined hundreds of Spanish and Portuguese skulls spanning four centuries, shows that differences in the craniofacial features of men and women have become less pronounced. ... > full story

Patient's own cells may hold therapeutic promise after reprogramming, gene correction (April 5, 2011) -- Scientists have moved gene therapy one step closer to clinical reality by determining that the process of correcting a genetic defect does not substantially increase the number of potentially cancer-causing mutations in induced pluripotent stem cells. ... > full story

Genetic changes behind sweet tooth (April 5, 2011) -- The substance ghrelin plays an important role in various addictions, such as alcoholism and binge-eating. It also impacts on sugar consumption, which is due, in part, to genetic factors, new research from Sweden reveals. ... > full story

Study identifies neural activity linked to food addiction (April 5, 2011) -- Persons with an addictive-like eating behavior appear to have greater neural activity in certain regions of the brain similar to substance dependence, including elevated activation in reward circuitry in response to food cues, according to a new study. ... > full story

Scientists discover a way to kill off tumors in cancer treatment breakthrough (April 5, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a new treatment for cancer which rather than attacking tumors directly, prevents the growth of new blood vessels in tumors, starving them of oxygen and nutrients, thereby preventing their growth. ... > full story

Bone marrow cells that transform into skin cells could revolutionize approach to wound treatment (April 5, 2011) -- Researchers have identified specific bone marrow cells that can transform into skin cells to repair damaged skin tissue, according to a new study. ... > full story

Sudden cardiac death affects about 1 in 44,000 NCAA athletes a year, study finds (April 5, 2011) -- About one in 44,000 college athletes each year suffers sudden cardiac death -- more than previous estimates. New calculations of young athletes' risk might influence guidelines for health screenings. ... > full story

Men who lose their jobs at greater risk of dying prematurely (April 5, 2011) -- Unemployment increases the risk of premature mortality by 63 percent, according to a new review. Researchers reached this conclusion by surveying existing research covering 20 million people in 15 (mainly western) countries, over the last 40 years. ... > full story

Pneumonia death rate lower among people who take statins, study suggests (April 5, 2011) -- Taking statins could help prevent people dying from pneumonia, according to a new study. ... > full story

Call of the riled: Stress signal in cancer cells triggers similar response in other cells, aiding tumor growth (April 5, 2011) -- Researchers say a "stress response" mechanism used by normal cells to cope with harsh or demanding conditions is exploited by cancer cells, which transmit the same stress signal to surrounding cells, triggering an inflammatory response in them that can aid tumor growth. ... > full story

Measuring oxidative stress can predict risk of atrial fibrillation (April 5, 2011) -- Measuring oxidative stress may help doctors predict the risk of developing atrial fibrillation, the most common heart beat irregularity. Research has identified a connection between oxidative stress and enlargement of the heart's left atrium, which leads to atrial fibrillation. ... > full story

Autism: Exceptional visual abilities explained (April 5, 2011) -- Researchers have determined that people with autism concentrate more brain resources in the areas associated with visual detection and identification, and conversely, have less activity in the areas used to plan and control thoughts and actions. This might explain their outstanding capacities in visual tasks. ... > full story

Early work indicates drug used to treat alcoholism may help those with Fragile X and autism (April 5, 2011) -- In small, early clinical trials, adults and children with autism and Fragile X syndrome have shown improved communication and social behavior when treated with acamprosate, according to new research. ... > full story

Tumors resistant to radiation therapy may be controlled by the MET oncogene (April 5, 2011) -- Ionizing radiation treats many cancers effectively, but in some patients a few tumor cells become resistant to radiation and go on to cause relapse and metastasis. A growth factor-receptor protein called MET may be a key player in these cells' resistance to radiation, and drugs targeting MET may help to prevent radiation-induced metastasis, according to a new study. ... > full story

Novel compounds for fighting against parasitic diseases (April 5, 2011) -- Parasites of the Trypanosomatidae family cause a number of serious human diseases. Researchers have now published the identification of novel anti-parasitic compounds targeting an enzyme unique to the parasites. These compounds are promising for the development of drugs with fewer side-effects than current medical treatments. ... > full story

Partner controlling behaviors appear to be associated with relationship violence (April 5, 2011) -- Having a significant other who exhibits controlling behaviors appears to be associated with increased physical and sexual relationship violence, according to a new study. However, young women experiencing these behaviors are more hesitant to answer questions about relationship violence. ... > full story

Dangerous blood pressure increases during exercise can be blocked, researchers find (April 4, 2011) -- Researchers have identified one reason people with hypertension experience an even greater increase in their blood pressure when they exercise, and they've learned how to prevent the rise. ... > full story

Safer CT scanning for children developed in Sweden (April 4, 2011) -- A research team in Sweden has developed a method that allows the lowest possible dose of radiation for children having a CT scan while still obtaining good image quality. ... > full story

Low income associated with mental disorders and suicide attempts, study finds (April 4, 2011) -- Low levels of household income are associated with several lifetime mental disorders and suicide attempts, and a decrease in income is associated with a higher risk for anxiety, substance use, and mood disorders, according to a new study. ... > full story

Prevalence of 'flattened head' in infants and young children appears to be increasing (April 4, 2011) -- The prevalence of plagiocephaly, a condition marked by an asymmetrical, flattening of the skull, appears to be increasing in infants and young children, according to a new study. ... > full story

Repetitive, high-impact sports linked to stress fractures in girls (April 4, 2011) -- Children are urged to participate in sports at younger and younger ages and at greater levels of intensity. While weight-bearing activity is generally thought to increase bone density, a new study finds that for preadolescent and adolescent girls, too much high-impact activity can lead to stress fractures. If these are detected too late in children and adolescent athletes, they pose a risk of true fracture, deformity or growth disturbance requiring surgical treatment, say the researchers. ... > full story

Teens who choose music over books are more likely to be depressed, study finds (April 4, 2011) -- Adolescents who spend more time listening to music are far more likely to have major depressive disorder, while young people who spend more time reading books are far less likely to have such a diagnosis, according to a new study. ... > full story

Common variant of p53 tumor suppressor gene linked to increased inflammatory responses (April 4, 2011) -- New findings link a common variant of the powerful anticancer gene p53 to increased inflammatory responses following DNA damage. The results may help explain why African Americans, who more frequently possess this variant, tend to be more susceptible to certain kinds of inflammation-related diseases and cancers, such as type II diabetes and colorectal cancer. ... > full story

High dose of oxygen enhances natural cancer treatment, researchers find (April 4, 2011) -- An environment of pure oxygen at three-and-a-half times normal air pressure adds significantly to the effectiveness of a natural compound already shown to kill cancerous cells, according to new research. ... > full story

Got up on the wrong side of the bed? Your work will show it (April 4, 2011) -- A new study of telephone customer service representatives shows just how important it is for employees to start the workday in a good mood. Researchers found that employees' moods when they clocked in tended to affect how they felt the rest of the day. Early mood was linked to their perceptions of customers and to how they reacted to customers' moods. ... > full story

Herpes linked to Alzheimer's disease: 'Cold sores' connected to cognitive decline (April 4, 2011) -- New research using a new technique to observe herpes simplex virus type 1 infections inside cells, finds that re-activation and growth of HSV1 infections contribute to cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease. ... > full story

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