Senin, 04 April 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Monday, April 4, 2011

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Four new genes for Alzheimer's disease risk identified (April 4, 2011) -- Researchers have identified four new genes linked to Alzheimer's disease. Each gene individually adds to the risk of having this common form of dementia later in life. The findings offer new insight into the underlying causes of Alzheimer's disease. ... > full story

Avoiding or controlling diabetes may reduce cancer risk and mortality (April 4, 2011) -- Diabetes is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer in men but with higher risk of other cancers in both men and women, according to new research. The data also showed an association between diabetes and higher cancer mortality rates. ... > full story

The five hospital factors that affect heart attack survival (April 4, 2011) -- A new study looks at why there is such a big difference in the mortality rates among patients treated for heart attacks in hospitals across the United States. ... > full story

New research demonstrates language learners' creativity (April 4, 2011) -- New research shows that language learning goes well beyond simple imitation, and in fact that language learners are quite creative and remarkably smart. Not only are learners able to generalize grammatical restrictions to new words in a category -- in this case, made-up adjectives -- but they also do not learn these restrictions in situations where they can be attributed to some irrelevant factor. ... > full story

Metabolic syndrome may increase risk for liver cancer (April 4, 2011) -- Scientists have confirmed that metabolic syndrome, a constellation of conditions that increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes, may also increase the risk of the two most common types of liver cancer. ... > full story

Cholesterol regulator plays key role in development of liver scarring, cirrhosis (April 4, 2011) -- Researchers have demonstrated that a key regulator of cholesterol and fat metabolism in the liver also plays an important role in the development of liver fibrosis -- the build-up of collagen scar tissue that can develop into cirrhosis. ... > full story

ADHD and prenatal alcohol exposure: Comparing profiles of learning and memory impairments in two groups of children (April 4, 2011) -- A new study has compared the verbal learning and memory performance of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) with that of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The children with PAE had initial problems with learning information, reflecting inefficient encoding of verbal material. The children with ADHD had difficulty retaining information over time, reflecting a deficit in retrieval of learned material. ... > full story

Chasing the pot of gold: Gambling subtypes and treatment outcomes (April 4, 2011) -- Approximately two million adults in the United States meet criteria for pathological gambling, and another four to six million are considered problem gamblers, according to the National Council on Problem Gambling. A new study reveals that gambling addiction treatment is not one-size-fits-all, but it is difficult to predict which style of treatment is best for the various forms of gambling addiction. ... > full story

How do neurons in the retina encode what we 'see'? (April 3, 2011) -- The moment we open our eyes, we perceive the world with apparent ease. But the question of how neurons in the retina encode what we "see" has been a tricky one. A key obstacle to understanding how our brain functions is that its components -- neurons -- respond in highly nonlinear ways to complex stimuli, making stimulus-response relationships extremely difficult to discern. Now a team of physicists has developed a general mathematical framework that makes optimal use of limited measurements, bringing them a step closer to deciphering the "language of the brain." ... > full story

Vitamin D levels linked with health of blood vessels (April 3, 2011) -- A lack of vitamin D, even in generally healthy people, is linked with stiffer arteries and an inability of blood vessels to relax, researchers have found. ... > full story

‘SKIP’-ing splicing forces tumor cells to undergo programmed cell death (April 3, 2011) -- When cells find themselves in a tight spot, the cell cycle regulator p21 halts the cell cycle, buying cells time to repair the damage, or if all else fails, to initiate programmed cell death. In contrast to other stress-induced genes, which dispense with the regular transcriptional entourage, p21Cip1 still requires SKIP, a transcription elongation factor that also helps with the editing of transcripts, to be expressed, found researchers. ... > full story

More organs for transplant when ICU docs help take care of brain dead donors, study finds (April 3, 2011) -- More than twice as many lungs and nearly 50 percent more kidneys could be recovered for transplant operations if intensive care physicians were to work with organ procurement organization coordinators to monitor and manage donor bodies after brain death has occurred, according to a new analysis. ... > full story

Heart drug cuts prostate cancer risk, holds potential for therapeutic use (April 3, 2011) -- New research suggests that men using the cardiac drug, digoxin, have a 24 percent lower risk for prostate cancer. The scientists say further research about the discovery may lead to use of the drug, or new ones that work the same way, to treat the cancer. ... > full story

DNA of 50 breast cancer patients decoded (April 3, 2011) -- In the single largest cancer genomics investigation reported to date, scientists have sequenced the whole genomes of tumors from 50 breast cancer patients and compared them to the matched DNA of the same patients' healthy cells. They uncovered incredible complexity in the cancer genomes, but also got a glimpse of new routes toward personalized medicine. ... > full story

New lung cancer staging system (TNM 7) better predicts local/regional recurrence, study shows (April 3, 2011) -- The new TNM 7 lung cancer staging system seems to be a better predictor of local or regional recurrence of lung cancer following surgery, according to a new study. ... > full story

When washing becomes a compulsion (April 3, 2011) -- Obsessive-compulsive disorder is often diagnosed too late in children and adolescents. Experts point out that appropriate early recognition and treatment can positively affect the course of the disease. ... > full story

Engineered protein fragment blocks the AIDS virus from entering cells (April 2, 2011) -- In what could be a potential breakthrough in the battle against AIDS and a major development in the rational design of new drugs, scientists have engineered a new protein that prevents the virus from entering cells. ... > full story

Skywalker enzyme ensures optimal communication between neurons (April 2, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered the mechanism that ensures neurons can continue to send the right signals for long consecutive periods -- a process that is disrupted in neurological diseases such as Parkinson's. They discovered that an enzyme called Skywalker controls the subtle balance in communication. ... > full story

Soy increases radiation's ability to kill lung cancer cells, study shows (April 2, 2011) -- A component in soybeans increases radiation's ability to kill lung cancer cells, according to a new study. ... > full story

Manage biological invasions like natural disasters, biologists say (April 2, 2011) -- Biological invasions are often more economically damaging than natural disasters and warrant correspondingly large investments in preparedness and response planning, according to biologists. Such measures seem absent in most developed nations. ... > full story

Older and stronger: Progressive resistance training can build muscle, increase strength as we age (April 2, 2011) -- It's often thought that older adults must tolerate the strength and muscle loss that come with age. But analyses of current research reveal that not only can we fight the battle of strength and muscle loss as we age, we can even build muscle and strength well into our golden years. ... > full story

Insulin could be Alzheimer's therapy (April 2, 2011) -- A low dose of insulin has been found to suppress the expression in the blood of four precursor proteins involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, according to new clinical research. ... > full story

Surprising finding from smoke inhalation study (April 2, 2011) -- A new study includes some unexpected findings about the immune systems of smoke-inhalation patients. Contrary to expectations, patients who died from their injuries had lower inflammatory responses in their lungs than patients who survived. ... > full story

How brain's memory center repairs damage from head injury (April 1, 2011) -- Researchers have described for the first time how the brain's memory center repairs itself following severe trauma. ... > full story

Three square meals a day paired with lean protein help people feel full during weight loss (April 1, 2011) -- Eating fewer, regular-sized meals with higher amounts of lean protein can make one feel more full than eating smaller, more frequent meals, according to new research. ... > full story

Many US women have children by more than one man (April 1, 2011) -- The first national study of the prevalence of multiple partner fertility shows that 28 percent of all US women with two or more children have children by more than one man. ... > full story

Genetic defect suggests high blood pressure may come from mother (April 1, 2011) -- A mitochondrial defect inherited from mothers is linked to high blood pressure in one Chinese family. The finding may provide new insights into maternally transmitted hypertension. ... > full story

Cat allergy vaccine safe and effective, study suggests (April 1, 2011) -- Mark Larché and his research team have developed a cat allergy vaccine which is effective and safe with almost no side effects. ... > full story

Probiotic bacteria could help treat Crohn's disease (April 1, 2011) -- New research suggests that infection with a probiotic strain of E. coli bacteria could help treat an reduce the negative effects of another E. coli infection that may be associated with Crohn's disease. ... > full story

Misreading faces tied to child social anxiety (April 1, 2011) -- Children suffering from extreme social anxiety are trapped in a nightmare of misinterpreted facial expressions: They confuse angry faces with sad ones, a new study shows. ... > full story

Brain research reveals possible causes of sudden infant death syndrome (April 1, 2011) -- New research sheds light on areas of the brain thought to be the root cause of sudden infant death syndrome -- the poorly understood condition also known as "cot death." ... > full story

Screening does not reduce prostate cancer deaths, study suggests (April 1, 2011) -- Screening does not significantly reduce prostate cancer deaths, but the risk of overdetection and overtreatment is considerable, concludes a 20-year study. ... > full story

Scientists unlock mystery of how the 22nd amino acid is produced (April 1, 2011) -- The most recently discovered amino acid, pyrrolysine, is produced by a series of just three chemical reactions with a single precursor -- the amino acid lysine, according to new research. Scientists have used mass spectrometry and a series of experiments to discover how cells make the amino acid, a process that until now had been unknown. ... > full story

Got a craving for fast food? Skip the coffee, study suggests (April 1, 2011) -- A new study has revealed not only that a healthy person's blood sugar levels spike after eating a high-fat meal, but that the spike doubles after having both a fatty meal and caffeinated coffee -- jumping to levels similar to those of people at risk for diabetes. Ultimately, saturated fat and fat combined with caffeinated coffee hinder the body's ability to clear sugar from the blood and having high blood sugar levels can take a toll on our body's organs. ... > full story

Promising target for AIDS vaccine (April 1, 2011) -- A section of the AIDS virus's protein envelope once considered an improbable target for a vaccine now appears to be one of the most promising, new research indicates. The section, a twisting strand of protein known as the V3 loop, is an attractive vaccine target because immune system antibodies aimed at the loop may offer protection against multiple genetic subtypes of HIV-1. ... > full story

Alzheimer's-like brain changes found in cognitively normal elders with amyloid plaques (April 1, 2011) -- Researchers using two brain-imaging technologies have found that apparently normal older individuals with brain deposits of amyloid beta -- the primary constituent of the plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients -- also had changes in brain structure similar to those seen in Alzheimer's patients. Results of the study may someday lead to identification of candidates for preventive therapies. ... > full story

Brain scans reveal differences in brain structure in teenagers with severe antisocial behavior (April 1, 2011) -- Brain scans of aggressive and antisocial teenage boys with conduct disorder (CD) have revealed differences in the structure of the developing brain that could link to their behavior problems. The study reveals that the brain differences were present regardless of the age of onset of the disorder, challenging the view that adolescence-onset CD is merely a consequence of imitating badly behaved peers. ... > full story

Immune therapy can control fertility in mammals: Technique could prevent pregnancy in pets, human use is also envisioned (April 1, 2011) -- Researchers have shown that it is possible to immunize mammals to control fertility. They say their technique could possibly be used on other mammals -- including humans -- because fertility hormones and their receptors are species-non-specific and are similar in both females and males. For pets, the technique could be an alternative to castration and adverse effects of hormone administration. ... > full story

HIV protein unveils vaccine target (April 1, 2011) -- A new study describes how a component of a potential HIV vaccine opens like a flower, undergoing one of the most dramatic protein rearrangements yet observed in nature. The finding could reveal new targets for vaccines to prevent HIV infection and AIDS. ... > full story

Regular breakfast helps reduce lead poisoning in children (April 1, 2011) -- It is known that fasting increases lead absorption in adults and consequently regular meals and snacks are recommended for children to prevent lead poisoning. New research demonstrates that having a regular breakfast is associated with lower blood lead levels in children. ... > full story

Link found between DNA damage and immune response (April 1, 2011) -- Researchers offer the first evidence that DNA damage can lead to the regulation of inflammatory responses, the body's reaction to injury. The proteins involved in the regulation help protect the body from infection. ... > full story

Patients in their 50s with diabetes have nearly double the risk for developing 'geriatric' ailments, study finds (April 1, 2011) -- Middle-aged adults with diabetes are much more likely to develop age-related conditions than their counterparts who don't have diabetes, according to a new study. ... > full story

What choice do we have? (April 1, 2011) -- Too much choice can be a bad thing -- not just for the individual, but for society. Thinking about choices makes people less sympathetic to others and less likely to support policies that help people, according to a new study. ... > full story

First report on bioaccumulation and processing of antibacterial ingredient TCC in fish (April 1, 2011) -- In the first report on the uptake and internal processing of triclocarban (TCC) in fish, scientists have reported strong evidence that TCC -- the source of environmental health concerns because of its potential endocrine-disrupting effects -- has a "strong" tendency to bioaccumulate in fish. ... > full story

Novel form of ubiquitin protein characterized: New insights into inflammation and cell death (April 1, 2011) -- Researchers in Germany have characterized a novel form of the regulatory protein ubiquitin, involved in inflammation and cell death. ... > full story

Molar power: Milk teeth wanted for stem cell palace art project (April 1, 2011) -- Children across Britain are being asked to donate their milk teeth to create “Palaces”, a spectacular glittering sculpture made from crystal resin and decorated with retired pearly whites. The project is a part of an art-science collaboration that aims to inspire the nation with the regenerative potential of adult stem cells. ... > full story

Study finds surprising gender differences related to sexual harassment (April 1, 2011) -- Sexual harassment may have become so commonplace for women that they have built up resistance to harassing behavior they consider merely "bothersome," suggests a provocative new study. ... > full story

Fruit fly's response to starvation could help control human appetites (March 31, 2011) -- Biologists have identified the molecular mechanisms triggered by starvation in fruit flies that enhance the nervous system's response to smell, allowing these insects and presumably vertebrates -- including humans -- to become more efficient and voracious foragers when hungry. Their discovery of the neural changes that control odor-driven food searches in flies could provide a new way to potentially regulate human appetite. ... > full story

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