Jumat, 11 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Friday, February 11, 2011

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How much information is there in the world? (February 11, 2011) -- Think you're overloaded with information? Not even close. A new study calculates how much information humankind can handle. ... > full story

Circulating blood antibodies are not required for HIV protection, study suggests (February 11, 2011) -- A vaccine which stimulates production of specific anti-HIV antibodies in the vaginal tissue was sufficient to protect monkeys from exposure to live virus, according to a new study. The results may also help to explain why a few individuals who lack anti-HIV antibodies in the blood are able to resist infection, even when they are repeatedly exposed to HIV. ... > full story

Discovery may lead to turning back the clock on ovarian cancer (February 11, 2011) -- Cancer researchers have discovered that a type of regulatory RNA may be effective in fighting ovarian cancer. This new discovery may allow physicians to turn back the clock of the tumor's life cycle to a phase where traditional chemotherapy can better do its job. ... > full story

Study examines relationship between autoimmune skin disease and neurologic disorders (February 11, 2011) -- Individuals with the autoimmune skin disease bullous pemphigoid appear more likely to have a diagnosis of neurologic disease, such as dementia and cerebrovascular disease, according to a new report. ... > full story

Pollution controls used during China Olympics could save lives if continued, study concludes (February 11, 2011) -- The air pollution control measures that were put in place in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games -- if continued -- would cut almost in half the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the area's residents from certain inhaled pollutants, a new study concludes. ... > full story

Handwriting problems affect children with autism into the teenage years (February 11, 2011) -- A new study suggests that the handwriting problems that affect children with autism are likely to continue into their teenage years. ... > full story

Gene mutations linked to high blood pressure (February 11, 2011) -- Scientists have identified two novel genetic mutations that can trigger hypertension in up to a third of patients suffering from a common cause of severe high blood pressure. ... > full story

Preventing heart failure and increasing survival rates in cancer patients (February 11, 2011) -- New research could help reduce heart failure in cancer patients around the world, and ultimately increase survival rates. Scientists have discovered the role of an enzyme which, when a patient receives chemotherapy, can cause life-threatening damage to the heart. This has, until now, restricted the amount of chemotherapy doses a patient can receive, thereby diluting the chemotherapy's effectiveness in destroying cancerous tumors. ... > full story

Vietnam’s biodiversity has deep roots in Earth’s past (February 11, 2011) -- Southeast Asia is a global biodiversity hotspot with a very high number of animal and plant species, many of which are only found there. Despite its highly endangered terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, Vietnam makes a significant contribution to this biological diversity. Scientists now demonstrate for the first time that North Vietnam was already a hotspot of biodiversity about 30 million years ago. ... > full story

Study examines surgeons' stress related to surgery and night duty (February 11, 2011) -- A small study of Japanese surgeons suggests that duration of surgery and the amount of blood loss are associated with increased stress scores, and that night duty is associated with reduced stress arousal scores, according to a new study. ... > full story

New method for reporting solar data (February 11, 2011) -- A straightforward new way to calculate, compile, and graphically present solar radiation measurements in a format that is accessible to decision makers and the general public has been developed. ... > full story

Larger cities drive growing wage gap between the rich and the poor, study shows (February 11, 2011) -- Why in the United States are the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer? A new study shows that our larger cities are responsible for up to one-third of the growth in the wage gap. And it's the soaring salaries of many urban dwellers that is causing the mega income gap in megacities. ... > full story

Los Angeles Basin long overdue for major earthquake: Lake-effect theory sinks, but quake timing questions go on (February 10, 2011) -- A chronology of 1,000 years of earthquakes at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault nixes the idea that lake changes in the now-dry region caused past quakes. However, researchers say, the timeline pulled from sediment in three deep trenches confirms that this portion of the fault is long past the expected time for a major temblor that would strongly shake the Los Angeles Basin. ... > full story

Surprising view of brain formation: Discovery of a new mechanism may have implications for a host of diseases (February 10, 2011) -- A new study has unveiled a surprising mechanism that controls brain formation. The findings have implications for understanding a host of diseases, including some forms of mental retardation, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism. ... > full story

Folic acid may increase the risk of asthma, study suggests (February 10, 2011) -- Recent Norwegian research suggests that there may be a connection between high levels of folic acid in pregnant mothers and the development of asthma in their children. However, the researchers stress that pregnant women should continue to take folic acid supplements. ... > full story

Unappreciated dynamism of blood cell production (February 10, 2011) -- The bone marrow stem cells responsible for generating new blood cells are less fixed and more flexible than previously thought, according to a new article. ... > full story

Robot therapy can improve arm, shoulder mobility after stroke (February 10, 2011) -- Robotic-assisted rehabilitation therapy, combined with standard rehabilitation, can improve upper extremity mobility in stroke patients with paralysis on one side. Patients with severe paralysis were more likely to be aided by robotic therapy. ... > full story

Choices -- not discrimination -- determine success for women scientists, experts argue (February 10, 2011) -- It's an incendiary topic in academia -- the belief that women are underrepresented in science, math and engineering fields because they face discrimination in the interviewing, hiring, and grant and manuscript review processes. But two social scientists now say it's not discrimination, but rather differences in resources attributable to career and family-related choices, that set women back. ... > full story

Extra testosterone reduces your empathy, researchers find (February 10, 2011) -- Placing testosterone under the tongue of volunteers negatively affects a person's ability to 'mind read', an indication of empathy. One implication of the new study is that current levels of testosterone directly affect the ability to read someone else's mind. This may help explain why, on average, women perform better on such tests than men, since men on average produce more testosterone than women. ... > full story

Salivary glands as organs of immunity: New research makes oral immunization easier to swallow (February 10, 2011) -- If you don't like shots or needles, you're in luck. New research gives the development of new oral vaccinations a shot in the arm. ... > full story

Success of male bustards is measured by their 'beards' (February 10, 2011) -- Up until now it was unknown whether males of the great bustard (Otis tarda), an emblematic bird in Spain and endangered at a global level, transmit information on their weight, size, and age through their plumage. For the first time a study shows that the 'beards' and the design of the neck are "reliable" indicators of the weight and age of their bearers, and are used to both avoid fights with competitors and to attract females. Published on 'Ethology' ... > full story

Long- and short-sleeved physician workwear receive same amount of bacterial and MRSA contamination (February 10, 2011) -- Governmental agencies in the United Kingdom recently instituted guidelines banning physicians' white coats and the wearing of long-sleeved garments to decrease the transmission of bacteria within hospitals due to the belief that cuffs of long-sleeved shirts carry more bacteria. However, a new study shows that after an eight-hour day, there is no difference in contamination of long- and short-sleeved shirts, or on the skin at the wearers' wrists. ... > full story

Plant's immune defense revs up for the morning attack (February 10, 2011) -- Timing is everything in the long-standing arms race between the flowering plant Arabidopsis and Hyaloperonospora, a downy mildew pathogen. Researchers have found that the little mustard plant cranks up its immune system in the morning to prepare for the greatest onslaught of infectious spores released by the mildew. ... > full story

Spring break: College students and risky behaviors (February 10, 2011) -- College students who arrange with friends to "get their backs" are less likely to engage in risky Spring Break behavior. ... > full story

Weather extremes are growing trend in Northern Australia, corals show (February 10, 2011) -- The extreme rain events that have caused flooding across northern Australia may become an increasingly familiar occurrence, new research suggests. The study uses the growth patterns in near-shore corals to determine which summers brought more rain than others, creating a centuries-long rainfall record for northern Australia. ... > full story

Motorcycle helmets reduce spine injuries after collisions; Helmet weight as risk to neck called a 'myth' (February 10, 2011) -- Motorcycle helmets, long known to dramatically reduce the number of brain injuries and deaths from crashes, appear to also be associated with a lower risk of cervical spine injury, new research suggests. ... > full story

Newly discovered deep sea lobster (February 10, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a rare new genus of deep water lobster. The lobster has movable, well-developed eyestalks and an inverted T-plate in front of its mouth. But its most striking feature is a mighty claw with a short, bulbous palm and extremely long, spiny fingers for capturing prey. ... > full story

When first-time mothers are induced, breaking the amniotic membrane shortens delivery time (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers have found that by performing an amniotomy on first time mothers in situations when labor has to be induced, that delivery time can be shortened by more than 10 percent. ... > full story

Revolutionary microchip technology? (February 10, 2011) -- Scientists have made the world’s first junctionless transistor even smaller. The transistor is the building block of the microchip. ... > full story

Neural mechanisms linked with vulnerability to anxiety (February 10, 2011) -- New research examines the anxious brain during a fear conditioning task and provides insight into why some individuals may be more or less prone to anxiety disorders. The study reveals neural mechanisms that may contribute to resilience against pathological fear and anxiety. The findings may help to direct therapeutic strategies for individuals who suffer from chronic anxiety as well as strategies that could help "at risk" individuals avoid developing anxiety disorders. ... > full story

Simple marine worms distantly related to humans (February 10, 2011) -- Two groups of lowly marine worms are related to complex species including vertebrates (such as humans) and starfish, according to new research. Previously thought to be an evolutionary link between simple animals such as jellyfish and the rest of animal life -- the worms' surprising promotion implies that they have not always been as simple as they now appear. ... > full story

Common insecticide used in homes associated with delayed mental development of young children (February 10, 2011) -- In the first study to examine the effects of pyrethroid insecticides on humans and the first evaluation of their potential toxicity to the developing fetal brain, scientists have found a significant association between piperonyl butoxide, a common additive in pyrethroid formulations, measured in personal air collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, and delayed mental development at 36 months. ... > full story

Rowdy residents warn crustaceans away from perilous reefs (February 10, 2011) -- Coral reefs present a treacherous wall of mouths to flea-sized planktonic crustaceans, but the clamor generated by animals on the reef may act like a foghorn to warn them away from danger. ... > full story

Immune system genes associated with increased risk of mental illness, new research suggests (February 10, 2011) -- Genes linked to the immune system can affect healthy people’s personality traits as well as the risk of developing mental illness and suicidal behavior, reveals new research from Sweden. ... > full story

Engineers study hybrid systems to design robust unmanned vehicles (February 10, 2011) -- Aerospace and mechanical engineers are studying bird and bee flight to develop unmanned vehicles that stay aloft longer and cope with sudden and severe changes in airflow. ... > full story

Looking at your body reduces pain (February 10, 2011) -- Simply looking at your body reduces pain, according to new research. The research shows that viewing your hand reduces the pain experienced when a hot object touches the skin. Furthermore, the level of pain depends on how large the hand looked -- the larger the hand the greater the effect of pain reduction. ... > full story

Diet soda may raise odds of vascular events; Salt linked to stroke risk (February 10, 2011) -- Drinking diet soda daily is linked to a higher risk of stroke, heart attack and vascular-related deaths, according to new research. High salt intake may double the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of sodium's role in hypertension. ... > full story

Skin cells used to develop possible heart defect treatment in first-of-its-kind study (February 10, 2011) -- Using skin cells from young patients who have a severe genetic heart defect, scientists have generated beating heart cells that carry the same genetic mutation. The newly created human heart cells -- cardiomyocytes -- allowed the researchers for the first time to examine and characterize the disorder at the cellular level. ... > full story

Race against time to find Apollo 14's lost voyagers: 'Moon trees' (February 10, 2011) -- In communities all across the US, travelers that went to the moon and back with the Apollo 14 mission are living out their quiet lives. The voyagers in question are not astronauts. They're "moon trees." ... > full story

Experimental approach may improve healing of diabetic wounds and bed sores (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers are reporting on a promising new approach to treating diabetic wounds, bed sores, chronic ulcers and other slow-to-heal wounds. It may be possible to speed healing by suppressing certain immune system cells. ... > full story

Paperweight for platinum: Bracing catalyst in material makes fuel cell component work better and last longer (February 10, 2011) -- A new combination of nanoparticles and graphene results in a more durable catalytic material for fuel cells, according to new research. The catalytic material is not only hardier but more chemically active as well. The researchers are confident the results will help improve fuel cell design. ... > full story

Crocodile tears don't fool us all: Study gives behavioral clues to spot fabricated versus genuine displays of remorse (February 10, 2011) -- How easy is it to fake remorse? Not so easy if your audience knows what to look for. In the first investigation of the nature of true and false remorse, researchers show that those who fake remorse show a greater range of emotional expressions and swing from one emotion to another very quickly -- a phenomenon referred to as emotional turbulence -- as well as speak with more hesitation. These findings have important implications for judges and parole board members, who look for genuine remorse when they make their sentencing and release decisions. ... > full story

Nanonets give rust a boost as agent in water splitting's hydrogen harvest (February 10, 2011) -- Coating a lattice of tiny wires called Nanonets with iron oxide creates an economical and efficient platform for the process of water splitting -- an emerging clean fuel method that harvests hydrogen from water, researchers report. ... > full story

Photodynamic therapy against cancer (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers investigated whether eradicating tumor-associated lymphatic vessels and the tumor cells they contain using photodynamic therapy could reduce tumor metastasis. The results were promising. Previously, the cells in metastatic transit in tumor-draining lymphatic vessels have not been given much attention; so the findings are new and exciting. ... > full story

Chocolate is a 'super fruit': Rich source of antioxidants (February 10, 2011) -- It is widely known that fruit contains antioxidants which may be beneficial to health. New research demonstrates that chocolate is a rich source of antioxidants and contains more polyphenols and flavanols than fruit juice. ... > full story

Human and mouse studies sharpen focus on cause of celiac disease (February 10, 2011) -- Blocking a factor that can activate the human immune response against intestinal bacteria or certain foods could prevent the development of celiac disease. ... > full story

New method takes snapshots of proteins as they fold (February 10, 2011) -- Using a sophisticated version of the stroboscopic photography Eadweard Muybridge used to prove in 1877 that a horse takes all four hooves off the ground when it gallops, scientists have now caught proteins in the act of folding, a process that can take less than thousandths of a second. ... > full story

Behavioral problems linked to cortisol levels: Study finds intervention needed as soon as behavioral problems appear (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers may have resolved the cortisol paradox. In a groundbreaking study, they link cortisol levels not simply to behavior problems, but to the length of time individuals have experienced behavior problems. ... > full story

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