Senin, 28 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Technology Headlines

for Monday, February 28, 2011

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Ultrasound fusion imaging provides comparable accuracy for bone, soft tissue tumors (February 28, 2011) -- Biopsies using ultrasound fusion imaging for detecting bone and soft tissue cancers are safe, effective and just as accurate as conventional biopsy methods, according to a new study. ... > full story

Running on a faster track: Researchers develop scheduling tool to save time on public transport (February 28, 2011) -- Researchers have developed the "Service Oriented Timetable," an application to intelligently manage the variables involved in metropolitan train travel. In simulations on the Israel Railway, the application shaved 12 minutes off a typical 60-minute journey. ... > full story

Turning forests into fuel: Promise and limits of biomass energy in Northeastern U.S. (February 28, 2011) -- In targeted applications, the heat generated by locally-grown biomass can reduce dependence on fossil fuels and support local economies," said Dr. Charles D. Canham, a forest ecologist at the Cary Institute and co-author of the report. "But each forested landscape is different, and regional variation in forest conditions and energy infrastructure means there is no one-size-fits-all solution." ... > full story

Asymmetric supernovae: Not all stellar explosions expand spherically (February 27, 2011) -- Stars are balls of glowing gas, with a nearly spherical shape. Accordingly, one would expect that when some stars explode as supernovae at the end of their lives, the resulting colossal fireballs should share this spherical symmetry. However, recent investigations are revealing that some of these events are not round. New data gathered at Calar Alto Observatory reinforce this surprising finding. ... > full story

Using math to navigate the Beatles 'Strawberry Fields Forever' (February 27, 2011) -- The whimsical music of The Beatles' Strawberry Fields Forever was made possible using production and editing techniques that were groundbreaking for its time. Beatles' fans probably wouldn't have even noticed that two takes of differing pitch and speed were spliced together until a math professor -- a veritable Sherlock of Rock -- went in to investigate. ... > full story

Floating solar panels: Solar installations on water (February 27, 2011) -- Most of the solar energy systems on the market today bare two major weaknesses: they require vast land areas in order to be built, and the costs related to solar cells fabrication and maintenance are high. A new technology is about to overcome these challenges and many more: floating solar power plants. ... > full story

Etched quantum dots shape up as single photon emitters (February 26, 2011) -- Like snowflakes or fingerprints, no two quantum dots are identical. But a new etching method for shaping and positioning these semiconductor nanocrystals might change that. Tests confirm that etched quantum dots emit single particles of light, boosting prospects for powering new types of devices for quantum communications. ... > full story

Atomic antennas transmit quantum information across a microchip (February 26, 2011) -- New research suggests a fundamentally novel architecture for quantum computation. They have experimentally demonstrated quantum antennas, which enable the exchange of quantum information between two separate memory cells located on a computer chip. This offers new opportunities to build practical quantum computers. ... > full story

Nanotechnology may lead to new treatment of liver cancer (February 26, 2011) -- Nanotechnology may open a new door on the treatment of liver cancer, according to researchers. They used molecular-sized bubbles filled with chemotherapy drugs to prevent cell growth and initiate cell death in test tubes and mice. ... > full story

New way to design metal nanoparticle catalysts (February 26, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered a new strategy for fabricating metal nanoparticles in catalysts that promises to enhance the selectivity and yield for a wide range of structure-sensitive catalytic reactions. ... > full story

New form of sulfur discovered in geological fluids (February 25, 2011) -- Sulfur is the sixth most abundant element on Earth and plays a key role in many geological and biological processes. Scientist have now identified a novel form of sulfur present in geological fluids: the S3(-) ion. The discovery calls existing theories about the geological transport of sulfur into question, and could provide ways of identifying new deposits of precious metals such as gold and copper. ... > full story

Simpler way of making proteins could lead to new nanomedicine agents (February 25, 2011) -- Researchers have developed a simple method of making short protein chains with spiral structures that can also dissolve in water, two desirable traits not often found together. The researchers observed that as they increased the length of the side chains with charges on the end, the polypeptides' propensity for forming helices also increased. Such structures could have applications as building blocks for self-assembling nanostructures and as agents for drug and gene delivery. ... > full story

Redesign of US donor-liver network could boost transplants by several hundred per year (February 25, 2011) -- Researchers redesigned the U.S.'s haphazard donor-liver distribution network to better account for urban and rural population differences, geographic distance, and the anticipated supply of and demand for donor livers. They calculated a rearrangement could result in up to 14 percent more people each year receiving the transplants they need. ... > full story

Solar experts detect waves in giant magnetic holes the size of the UK (February 25, 2011) -- Massive waves in giant magnetic holes on the surface of the Sun have been discovered for the first time by solar scientists, something that will bring experts a step closer to unlocking the secrets of the Sun. ... > full story

Gas rich galaxies confirm prediction of modified gravity theory (February 25, 2011) -- Recent data for gas rich galaxies precisely match predictions of a modified theory of gravity know as MOND according to a new analysis. ... > full story

Producing clean water in an emergency (February 25, 2011) -- Chemistry researchers have taken a key step towards making a cheap, portable, paper-based filter coated with silver nanoparticles to be used in emergency situations like floods, tsunamis or earthquakes. ... > full story

Migrating cells flow like glass: Research advances understanding of wound healing, cancer metastasis, and embryonic development (February 25, 2011) -- By studying cellular movements at the level of both the individual cell and the collective group, applied physicists have discovered that migrating tissues flow very much like colloidal glass. ... > full story

Catalogue of sustainable design resources developed (February 25, 2011) -- A new catalog of eco-friendly materials for use in the construction industry has been developed. ... > full story

Designing a city for safe protests (February 25, 2011) -- Recent events in Egypt proved that large urban spaces are essential to the healthy expression of civil dissent. Architects and city planners should design useful and effective spaces to allow for widespread assembly and civil participation, experts say. ... > full story

Metallic molecules to nanotubes: Ruthenium complexes dissolve nanotubes, add functionality (February 24, 2011) -- A lab has stepped forward with an efficient method to disperse nanotubes in a way that preserves their unique properties -- and adds more. The new technique allows inorganic metal complexes with different functionalities to remain in close contact with single-walled carbon nanotubes while keeping them separated in a solution. ... > full story

Planet formation in action? Astronomers may have found first object clearing its path in natal disc surrounding a young star (February 24, 2011) -- Astronomers have now studied the short-lived disc of material around a young star that is in the early stages of making a planetary system. For the first time a smaller companion could be detected that may be the cause of the large gap found in the disc. Future observations will determine whether this companion is a planet or a brown dwarf. ... > full story

How nature's patterns form (February 24, 2011) -- When people on airplanes ask Alan Newell what he works on, he tells them "flower arrangements." He could also say "fingerprints" or "sand ripples" or "how plants grow." "Most patterns you see, including the ones on sand dunes or fish or tigers or leopards or in the laboratory – even the defects in the patterns – have many universal features," he says. ... > full story

Green chemistry offers route towards zero-waste production (February 24, 2011) -- Novel green chemical technologies will play a key role helping society move towards the elimination of waste while offering a wider range of products from biorefineries, according to one expert. ... > full story

New stretchable solar cells will power artificial electronic 'super skin' (February 24, 2011) -- "Super skin" is what one researcher wants to create. She's already developed a flexible sensor that is so sensitive to pressure it can feel a fly touch down. Now she's working to add the ability to detect chemicals and sense various kinds of biological molecules. She's also making the skin self-powering, using polymer solar cells to generate electricity. And the new solar cells are not just flexible, but stretchable -- they can be stretched up to 30 percent beyond their original length and snap back without any damage or loss of power. ... > full story

Bedside ultrasound becomes a reality (February 24, 2011) -- Clinicians have often referred to ultrasound technology as the "stethoscope of the future," predicting that as the equipment shrinks in size, it will one day be as common at the bedside as that trusty tool around every physician's neck. According to a new report, that day has arrived. ... > full story

Quantum simulator becomes accessible to the world (February 24, 2011) -- Experimental physicists have put a lot of effort in isolating sensitive measurements from the disruptive influences of the environment. In an international first, Austrian quantum physicists have realized a toolbox of elementary building blocks for an open-system quantum simulator, where a controlled coupling to an environment is used in a beneficial way. This offers novel prospects for studying the behavior of highly complex quantum systems. ... > full story

New transmission concept for wind turbines: Higher energy yield with torque vectoring gears (February 24, 2011) -- Wind turbines have a problem: Depending on the wind's force, the rotational speed of the turbine and thus of the generator changes. However, alternating current must be fed into the grid with precisely 50 (or 60) hertz. Typically the generated alternating current is first rectified and then transformed back to alternating current of the required frequency. Scientists have now developed an active transmission that makes this double transformation superfluous. ... > full story

Quantum hot potato: Researchers entice two atoms to swap smallest energy units (February 24, 2011) -- Physicists have for the first time coaxed two atoms in separate locations to take turns jiggling back and forth while swapping the smallest measurable units of energy. By directly linking the motions of two physically separated atoms, the technique has the potential to simplify information processing in future quantum computers and simulations. ... > full story

New high-performance lithium-ion battery 'top candidate' for electric cars (February 24, 2011) -- Scientists are reporting development of an advanced lithium-ion battery that is ideal for powering the electric vehicles now making their way into dealer showrooms. The new battery can store large amounts of energy in a small space and has a high rate capacity, meaning it can provide current even in extreme temperatures. ... > full story

A semantic sommelier: Wine application highlights the power of Web 3.0 (February 24, 2011) -- In the restaurant of the future, you will always enjoy the perfect meal with that full-bodied 2006 cabernet sauvignon, you will always know your dinner companions' favorite merlot, and you will be able to check if the sommelier's cellar contains your favorite pinot grigio before you even check your coat. These feats of classic cuisine will come to the modern dinner through the power of Semantic Web technology. ... > full story

Secret society connecting through the Internet feeds eating disorders, researchers say (February 24, 2011) -- Researchers reveal a new social support group that's emerging on the Web -- a secretive society to encourage negative behaviors associated with eating disorders. ... > full story

UV-transparent coating for image sensors (February 24, 2011) -- Image sensors as used in cell phones are partially color-blind. This is because of their coating, which prevents UV light from passing through. CMOS chips have as a result not been suitable for spectroscopy up to now. A new production process makes the coating transparent -- and the sensors suitable for special applications. ... > full story

What should be the US role in cybersecurity and cyber-spying? (February 24, 2011) -- A new article calls on the intelligence community to jointly create a policy on cybersecurity and determine the degree to which the US should protect intellectual property and national infrastructure of other nations. The author also comments on how aggressive the United States should be in its proactive cyber-spying activities. ... > full story

Versatile Ultra-low Power Biomedical Signal Processor (February 24, 2011) -- Researchers have developed a versatile ultra-low power biomedical signal processor, CoolBioTM, meeting the requirements of future wearable biomedical sensor systems. The biomedical signal processor consumes only 13pJ/cycle when running a complex ECG (electrocardiogram) algorithm at 1MHz and 0.4V operating voltage. This C-programmable chip is voltage and performance scalable supporting a frequency range of 1MHz up to 100MHz with an operating voltage from 0.4 to 1.2V. ... > full story

Innovative SAW-less reconfigurable transceiver developed (February 24, 2011) -- Researchers have developed a highly-linear reconfigurable transceiver, eliminating the need of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. The unique approach is a major breakthrough towards fully reconfigurable radios by relaxing the requirements of the antenna filters, which suffered today from limited flexibility due to the high filtering specs. The fully reconfigurable transceiver 'Scaldio' is compatible with multiple wireless standards including the fourth generation mobile broadband standard 3GPP-LTE. ... > full story

Lasers ID deadly skin cancer better than doctors (February 23, 2011) -- High-resolution images from a new laser-based tool could help doctors better diagnose melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, while potentially saving thousands of lives and millions of dollars in unnecessary health care costs each year. ... > full story

Paper archives reveal pollution's history (February 23, 2011) -- A new source of climate records is as close as the nearest university library: Back issues of magazines reveal the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels. ... > full story

Bizarre friction-free 'superfluid' found in neutron star's core (February 23, 2011) -- NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. ... > full story

3-D nanoparticle in atomic resolution (February 23, 2011) -- For the first time, scientists have managed to measure the atomic structure of individual nanoparticles. The technique could help better understand the properties of nanoparticles in future. ... > full story

'Fingerprints' match molecular simulations with reality (February 23, 2011) -- A theoretical technique is bringing supercomputer simulations and experimental results closer together by identifying common "fingerprints." The method reconciles the different signals between experiments and computer simulations to strengthen analyses of molecules in motion. ... > full story

Cell phone use may have effect on brain activity, but health consequences unknown (February 23, 2011) -- In a preliminary study, researchers found that 50-minute cell phone use was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism (a marker of brain activity) in the region closest to the phone antenna, but the finding is of unknown clinical significance. ... > full story

Toward computers that fit on a pen tip: New technologies usher in the millimeter-scale computing era (February 23, 2011) -- A prototype implantable eye pressure monitor for glaucoma patients is believed to contain the first complete millimeter-scale computing system. ... > full story

MIT engineers design new nanoparticle that could lead to vaccines for HIV, malaria, other diseases (February 23, 2011) -- Engineers have designed a new type of nanoparticle that could safely and effectively deliver vaccines for diseases such as HIV and malaria. ... > full story

Using EEGs to diagnose autism spectrum disorders in infants: Machine-learning system finds differences in brain connectivity (February 23, 2011) -- A computational physicist and a cognitive neuroscientist have come up with the beginnings of a noninvasive test to evaluate an infant's autism risk. ... > full story

Liquid metal key to simpler creation of electrodes for microfluidic devices (February 23, 2011) -- Researchers have developed a faster, easier way to create microelectrodes, for use in microfluidic devices, by using liquid metal. Microfluidic devices manipulate small amounts of fluid and have a wide variety of applications, from testing minute blood samples to performing advanced chemical research. ... > full story

Roots of the solar system: Astronomers observe planets in the making (February 23, 2011) -- Planets form in disks of dust and gas that surround young stars. A look at the birth places means a journey into the past of Earth and its siblings. Now, astronomers have been able to obtain detailed images of the protoplanetary disks of two stars using the Subaru telescope in Hawaii. This is the first time that disk structures comparable in size to our own solar system have been resolved this clearly, revealing features such as rings and gaps that are associated with the formation of giant planets. The observations are part of a systematic survey to search for planets and disks around young stars using a state-of-the-art high-contrast camera designed specifically for this purpose. ... > full story

Proteins find their way with address label and guide (February 23, 2011) -- Most newly produced proteins in a cell need to be transported to the proper place before they can be put to work. For proteins to find their way, they have a built-in signal linked to them, a kind of address label. Moreover, they are helped by a particle that guides them to the cell membrane. In a new study, researchers in Sweden show how this interaction works. ... > full story

Americans and Canadians get different drug information online (February 23, 2011) -- Americans and Canadians are getting vastly different search results when they look up prescription drug information online, says a new study. ... > full story

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