Jumat, 11 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Friday, February 11, 2011

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How much information is there in the world? (February 11, 2011) -- Think you're overloaded with information? Not even close. A new study calculates how much information humankind can handle. ... > full story

Circulating blood antibodies are not required for HIV protection, study suggests (February 11, 2011) -- A vaccine which stimulates production of specific anti-HIV antibodies in the vaginal tissue was sufficient to protect monkeys from exposure to live virus, according to a new study. The results may also help to explain why a few individuals who lack anti-HIV antibodies in the blood are able to resist infection, even when they are repeatedly exposed to HIV. ... > full story

Discovery may lead to turning back the clock on ovarian cancer (February 11, 2011) -- Cancer researchers have discovered that a type of regulatory RNA may be effective in fighting ovarian cancer. This new discovery may allow physicians to turn back the clock of the tumor's life cycle to a phase where traditional chemotherapy can better do its job. ... > full story

Study examines relationship between autoimmune skin disease and neurologic disorders (February 11, 2011) -- Individuals with the autoimmune skin disease bullous pemphigoid appear more likely to have a diagnosis of neurologic disease, such as dementia and cerebrovascular disease, according to a new report. ... > full story

Pollution controls used during China Olympics could save lives if continued, study concludes (February 11, 2011) -- The air pollution control measures that were put in place in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games -- if continued -- would cut almost in half the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the area's residents from certain inhaled pollutants, a new study concludes. ... > full story

Handwriting problems affect children with autism into the teenage years (February 11, 2011) -- A new study suggests that the handwriting problems that affect children with autism are likely to continue into their teenage years. ... > full story

Gene mutations linked to high blood pressure (February 11, 2011) -- Scientists have identified two novel genetic mutations that can trigger hypertension in up to a third of patients suffering from a common cause of severe high blood pressure. ... > full story

Preventing heart failure and increasing survival rates in cancer patients (February 11, 2011) -- New research could help reduce heart failure in cancer patients around the world, and ultimately increase survival rates. Scientists have discovered the role of an enzyme which, when a patient receives chemotherapy, can cause life-threatening damage to the heart. This has, until now, restricted the amount of chemotherapy doses a patient can receive, thereby diluting the chemotherapy's effectiveness in destroying cancerous tumors. ... > full story

Study examines surgeons' stress related to surgery and night duty (February 11, 2011) -- A small study of Japanese surgeons suggests that duration of surgery and the amount of blood loss are associated with increased stress scores, and that night duty is associated with reduced stress arousal scores, according to a new study. ... > full story

Surprising view of brain formation: Discovery of a new mechanism may have implications for a host of diseases (February 10, 2011) -- A new study has unveiled a surprising mechanism that controls brain formation. The findings have implications for understanding a host of diseases, including some forms of mental retardation, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism. ... > full story

Folic acid may increase the risk of asthma, study suggests (February 10, 2011) -- Recent Norwegian research suggests that there may be a connection between high levels of folic acid in pregnant mothers and the development of asthma in their children. However, the researchers stress that pregnant women should continue to take folic acid supplements. ... > full story

Unappreciated dynamism of blood cell production (February 10, 2011) -- The bone marrow stem cells responsible for generating new blood cells are less fixed and more flexible than previously thought, according to a new article. ... > full story

Robot therapy can improve arm, shoulder mobility after stroke (February 10, 2011) -- Robotic-assisted rehabilitation therapy, combined with standard rehabilitation, can improve upper extremity mobility in stroke patients with paralysis on one side. Patients with severe paralysis were more likely to be aided by robotic therapy. ... > full story

Choices -- not discrimination -- determine success for women scientists, experts argue (February 10, 2011) -- It's an incendiary topic in academia -- the belief that women are underrepresented in science, math and engineering fields because they face discrimination in the interviewing, hiring, and grant and manuscript review processes. But two social scientists now say it's not discrimination, but rather differences in resources attributable to career and family-related choices, that set women back. ... > full story

Extra testosterone reduces your empathy, researchers find (February 10, 2011) -- Placing testosterone under the tongue of volunteers negatively affects a person's ability to 'mind read', an indication of empathy. One implication of the new study is that current levels of testosterone directly affect the ability to read someone else's mind. This may help explain why, on average, women perform better on such tests than men, since men on average produce more testosterone than women. ... > full story

Salivary glands as organs of immunity: New research makes oral immunization easier to swallow (February 10, 2011) -- If you don't like shots or needles, you're in luck. New research gives the development of new oral vaccinations a shot in the arm. ... > full story

Long- and short-sleeved physician workwear receive same amount of bacterial and MRSA contamination (February 10, 2011) -- Governmental agencies in the United Kingdom recently instituted guidelines banning physicians' white coats and the wearing of long-sleeved garments to decrease the transmission of bacteria within hospitals due to the belief that cuffs of long-sleeved shirts carry more bacteria. However, a new study shows that after an eight-hour day, there is no difference in contamination of long- and short-sleeved shirts, or on the skin at the wearers' wrists. ... > full story

Spring break: College students and risky behaviors (February 10, 2011) -- College students who arrange with friends to "get their backs" are less likely to engage in risky Spring Break behavior. ... > full story

Motorcycle helmets reduce spine injuries after collisions; Helmet weight as risk to neck called a 'myth' (February 10, 2011) -- Motorcycle helmets, long known to dramatically reduce the number of brain injuries and deaths from crashes, appear to also be associated with a lower risk of cervical spine injury, new research suggests. ... > full story

When first-time mothers are induced, breaking the amniotic membrane shortens delivery time (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers have found that by performing an amniotomy on first time mothers in situations when labor has to be induced, that delivery time can be shortened by more than 10 percent. ... > full story

Neural mechanisms linked with vulnerability to anxiety (February 10, 2011) -- New research examines the anxious brain during a fear conditioning task and provides insight into why some individuals may be more or less prone to anxiety disorders. The study reveals neural mechanisms that may contribute to resilience against pathological fear and anxiety. The findings may help to direct therapeutic strategies for individuals who suffer from chronic anxiety as well as strategies that could help "at risk" individuals avoid developing anxiety disorders. ... > full story

Common insecticide used in homes associated with delayed mental development of young children (February 10, 2011) -- In the first study to examine the effects of pyrethroid insecticides on humans and the first evaluation of their potential toxicity to the developing fetal brain, scientists have found a significant association between piperonyl butoxide, a common additive in pyrethroid formulations, measured in personal air collected during the third trimester of pregnancy, and delayed mental development at 36 months. ... > full story

Immune system genes associated with increased risk of mental illness, new research suggests (February 10, 2011) -- Genes linked to the immune system can affect healthy people’s personality traits as well as the risk of developing mental illness and suicidal behavior, reveals new research from Sweden. ... > full story

Looking at your body reduces pain (February 10, 2011) -- Simply looking at your body reduces pain, according to new research. The research shows that viewing your hand reduces the pain experienced when a hot object touches the skin. Furthermore, the level of pain depends on how large the hand looked -- the larger the hand the greater the effect of pain reduction. ... > full story

Diet soda may raise odds of vascular events; Salt linked to stroke risk (February 10, 2011) -- Drinking diet soda daily is linked to a higher risk of stroke, heart attack and vascular-related deaths, according to new research. High salt intake may double the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of sodium's role in hypertension. ... > full story

Skin cells used to develop possible heart defect treatment in first-of-its-kind study (February 10, 2011) -- Using skin cells from young patients who have a severe genetic heart defect, scientists have generated beating heart cells that carry the same genetic mutation. The newly created human heart cells -- cardiomyocytes -- allowed the researchers for the first time to examine and characterize the disorder at the cellular level. ... > full story

Experimental approach may improve healing of diabetic wounds and bed sores (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers are reporting on a promising new approach to treating diabetic wounds, bed sores, chronic ulcers and other slow-to-heal wounds. It may be possible to speed healing by suppressing certain immune system cells. ... > full story

Crocodile tears don't fool us all: Study gives behavioral clues to spot fabricated versus genuine displays of remorse (February 10, 2011) -- How easy is it to fake remorse? Not so easy if your audience knows what to look for. In the first investigation of the nature of true and false remorse, researchers show that those who fake remorse show a greater range of emotional expressions and swing from one emotion to another very quickly -- a phenomenon referred to as emotional turbulence -- as well as speak with more hesitation. These findings have important implications for judges and parole board members, who look for genuine remorse when they make their sentencing and release decisions. ... > full story

Photodynamic therapy against cancer (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers investigated whether eradicating tumor-associated lymphatic vessels and the tumor cells they contain using photodynamic therapy could reduce tumor metastasis. The results were promising. Previously, the cells in metastatic transit in tumor-draining lymphatic vessels have not been given much attention; so the findings are new and exciting. ... > full story

Chocolate is a 'super fruit': Rich source of antioxidants (February 10, 2011) -- It is widely known that fruit contains antioxidants which may be beneficial to health. New research demonstrates that chocolate is a rich source of antioxidants and contains more polyphenols and flavanols than fruit juice. ... > full story

Human and mouse studies sharpen focus on cause of celiac disease (February 10, 2011) -- Blocking a factor that can activate the human immune response against intestinal bacteria or certain foods could prevent the development of celiac disease. ... > full story

Behavioral problems linked to cortisol levels: Study finds intervention needed as soon as behavioral problems appear (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers may have resolved the cortisol paradox. In a groundbreaking study, they link cortisol levels not simply to behavior problems, but to the length of time individuals have experienced behavior problems. ... > full story

'Gene desert' on chromosome 9 is hotspot for coronary artery disease risk (February 10, 2011) -- The discovery that a "gene desert" on chromosome 9 was a hotspot for coronary artery disease risk was among the highlights of findings produced recently by genome-wide association studies, which compare the genomes of many people for genetic variations and have been broadly used in the past few years to study hundreds of diseases and complex traits. Gene deserts are large genomic segments devoid of genes. Now scientists have developed a novel approach to detect long-distance chromosomal interactions and have applied this method to the chromosome 9 gene desert, revealing that the association results from an altered inflammatory signaling response in individuals with increased CAD risk. ... > full story

Advanced macular degeneration is associated with an increased risk of bleeding stroke, study finds (February 10, 2011) -- In the first study to examine stroke subtypes in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), older people with late-stage AMD appear to be at increased risk of bleeding stroke, but not a stroke caused by a blood clot in the brain. However the findings are preliminary and earlier stage AMD was not linked with any type of stroke. ... > full story

Key to better health care may be a walk in the park (February 10, 2011) -- The payoff for investing in public parks and recreation sites may be healthier, more physically fit residents and a less strained health-care system, according to researchers. ... > full story

New technology in human trials to spot cardiac disease, cancer, drug abuse: Diagnostic chip may help hearts, cut costs (February 10, 2011) -- Heart disease is a silent killer, but new microchip technology is expected to advance the art of diagnosis. ... > full story

Everolimus improves progression-free survival for patients with rare pancreatic cancer, study finds (February 10, 2011) -- In an international Phase III randomized study, everolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), has shown to dramatically improve progression-free survival for patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), according to researchers. ... > full story

Stroke in Mexican-Americans expected to rise 350 percent in next 40 years (February 10, 2011) -- Strokes among Mexican-Americans are expected to rise 350 percent from 2010 to 2050, according to new research. Strokes among non-Hispanic whites are expected to rise 75 percent from 2010 to 2050. ... > full story

Foot bone suggests Lucy's kin had arched foot, for walking (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers have found proof that arches existed in a predecessor to the human species that lived more than 3 million years ago. This discovery could change scientists' views of human evolution. ... > full story

Fetal surgery takes a huge step forward in treating children with spina bifida (February 9, 2011) -- Performing delicate surgery in the womb, months before birth, can substantially improve outcomes for children with a common, disabling birth defect of the spine. A new landmark study shows that fetal surgery for spina bifida greatly reduces the need to divert fluid from the brain, improves mobility and improves the chances that a child will be able to walk independently. ... > full story

How omega-3 fatty acids help prevent several forms of blindness (February 9, 2011) -- New research reveals exactly how omega-3 fatty acids work in preventing several forms of blindness. ... > full story

Poorer patients have more severe ischemic strokes, study indicates (February 9, 2011) -- Poorer patients have more severe ischemic strokes, or strokes resulting from blockages in blood vessels in the brain, according to new research. ... > full story

Public sector research responsible for many new drug discoveries, researchers find (February 9, 2011) -- New research shows that public-sector research has had a more immediate effect on improving public health than was previously realized. ... > full story

Microsponges from seaweed may save lives (February 9, 2011) -- Microsponges derived from seaweed may help diagnose heart disease, cancers, HIV and other diseases quickly and at far lower cost than current clinical methods. ... > full story

Stockpiled avian flu vaccine could protect against potential pandemic (February 9, 2011) -- A stockpiled vaccine designed to fight a strain of avian flu that circulated in 2004 can be combined with a vaccine that matches the current strain of bird flu to protect against a potential pandemic, researchers have found. The findings suggest public health officials can get a jump on fighting a pandemic caused by avian flu virus because they won't have to wait for a vaccine that exactly matches the current strain of bird flu to be manufactured. ... > full story

Toward a fast, simple test for detecting cholera rampaging in 40 countries (February 9, 2011) -- With cholera on the rampage in Haiti and almost 40 other countries, scientists are reporting the development of a key advance that could provide a fast, simple test to detect the toxin that causes the disease. Cholera affects more than 200,000 people annually, mainly in developing countries, and causes about 5,000 deaths. Many involve infants, children, and the elderly. ... > full story

Girls' interest in computing science piqued by making video games (February 9, 2011) -- For high-school girls the fun is in making video games, not just playing them, according to a new study. Their study shows that if you want to get more females interested in computing science, you have to rewrite the program, so to speak. ... > full story

Primates' unique gene regulation mechanism: Little-understood DNA elements serve important purpose (February 9, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a new way genes are regulated that is unique to primates. Long-known, but little-understood DNA elements serve important purpose, according to new research. The newly identified mechanism involves Alu elements, repetitive DNA elements that spread throughout the genome as primates evolved. While scientists have known about the existence of Alu elements for many years, their function, if any, was largely unknown. This unique regulatory mechanism could prove to be a valuable treatment target as researchers seek to manipulate gene expression to improve human health. ... > full story

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