Selasa, 12 Oktober 2010

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Tuesday, October 12, 2010

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Is infertility more common in women with epilepsy? (October 12, 2010) -- Women with epilepsy may be more likely to experience infertility, according to new research. The study of women in India found that women with epilepsy experienced infertility at more than twice the rate of that found in the general population. The research also found that women who were taking multiple epilepsy drugs were more likely to be infertile than those taking fewer drugs or no drugs for epilepsy. ... > full story

On the trail of the epigenetic code: Test system on Drosophila should provide the key to histone function (October 12, 2010) -- Test system on fruit flies should provide the key to histone function. The genetic inherited material DNA was long viewed as the sole bearer of hereditary information. The function of its packaging proteins, the histones, was believed to be exclusively structural. Additional genetic information can be stored, however, and passed on to subsequent generations through chemical changes in the DNA or histones. Scientists have succeeded in creating an experimental system for testing the function of such chemical histone modifications and their influence on the organism. ... > full story

So that’s why we’re allergic to sun creams (October 12, 2010) -- What happens to sunscreens when they are exposed to sunlight? And how is the skin affected by the degradation products that form? This has been the subject of recent research in Sweden. ... > full story

Insulin resistance may be associated with stroke risk (October 12, 2010) -- Insulin resistance, a condition in which insulin produced by the body becomes less effective in reducing blood glucose levels, appears to be associated with an increased risk of stroke in individuals without diabetes, according to a new study. ... > full story

Meta-analysis shows no heart benefits for folic acid supplements (October 12, 2010) -- Use of folic acid supplements appears to lower blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine -- theorized to be a risk factor for heart and blood vessel disease -- but does not appear to be associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular events, cancer or death over a five-year period, according to a meta-analysis of previously published studies. ... > full story

Fittest hepatitis C viruses infect transplanted livers (October 11, 2010) -- Not all viruses are created equal. In liver transplant patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, only viruses that can dodge the immune response invade the new liver, according to a new study. ... > full story

New findings on autoimmune diseases (October 11, 2010) -- A deficiency in one of the immune system’s enzymes affects the severity of autoimmune diseases such as MS, and explains why the course of these diseases can vary so much. New findings give an insight into how this enzyme deficiency can be diagnosed, and could lead to new medicines, reveals new research from Sweden. ... > full story

When in Rome: Study-abroad students increase alcohol intake, study finds (October 11, 2010) -- For most American students, spending a semester or two studying in a foreign country means the opportunity to improve foreign language skills and become immersed in a different culture. For others, studying abroad is more like a prolonged spring break. In a new study, researchers report that American study abroad students doubled how much they drank while they were away. ... > full story

Study links male Y chromosome variants with the risk of coronary heart disease (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists in the UK have shown that genetic variations in the Y chromosome affect a male's risk of coronary heart disease. ... > full story

Study details structure of potential target for HIV and cancer drugs (October 11, 2010) -- In a technical tour de force, structural biologists have determined the three-dimensional structure of a molecule involved in HIV infection and in many forms of cancer. The high-resolution structure sheds light on how the molecule functions and could point to ways to control its activity, potentially locking out HIV and stalling cancer's spread. ... > full story

Three-way control of fetal heart-cell proliferation could help regenerate cardiac cells (October 11, 2010) -- Heart muscle cells do not normally replicate in adult tissue, but multiply with abandoned during development. This is why the loss of heart muscle after a heart attack is so dire -- you can't grow enough new heart muscle to make up for the loss. Researchers describe the interconnections between three-molecules that control fetal, heart-muscle-cell proliferation in a mouse model that will help cardiologists better understand the natural repair process after heart attacks. ... > full story

Family therapy for anorexia twice as effective as individual therapy, researchers find (October 11, 2010) -- Family-based therapy, in which parents of adolescents with anorexia nervosa are enlisted to interrupt their children's disordered behaviors, is twice as effective as individual psychotherapy at producing full remission of the disease, new research shows. ... > full story

Genetics of obesity and fat distribution: Apple and pear shapes partly due to genes (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists have made significant inroads into uncovering the genetic basis of obesity by identifying 18 new gene sites associated with overall obesity and 13 that affect fat distribution. The studies include data from nearly a quarter of a million participants, the largest genetic investigation of human traits to date. ... > full story

New method to identify people by their ears (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists working on biometrics in the UK have found a way to identify ears with a success rate of almost 100 percent. ... > full story

High risk of acute mountain sickness on Mount Kilimanjaro (October 11, 2010) -- Climbers of high peaks such as Mount Kilimanjaro are at high risk for acute mountain sickness (AMS). Trekkers should not ignore AMS warning signs, which can progress to more serious medical outcomes. Mountain climbers can best minimize their risk for altitude sickness by becoming acclimatized to increased altitudes before an ascent, according to a new study. ... > full story

Competing motivational brain responses predict costly helping (October 11, 2010) -- A new study reveals that brain signals elicited by the sight of someone suffering pain differ as a function of whether we identify positively or negatively with that person and that these differential brain signals predict a later decision to help or withdraw from helping. ... > full story

Oral delivery system to treat inflammatory bowel diseases developed (October 11, 2010) -- Researchers have developed a novel approach for delivering small bits of genetic material into the body to improve the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The researchers encapsulated short pieces of RNA into engineered particles called thioketal nanoparticles and orally delivered the genetic material directly to the inflamed intestines of animals. ... > full story

'Obese' BMI does not harm current health of young adults, study says (October 11, 2010) -- A study examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and illness suggests that a BMI of 30 or above, a signal of obesity according to federal health standards, does not translate into current illness among adults under age 40. In addition, researchers found that across all age groups studied, from 25 to 70 years, there was little difference in the current health status in normal-weight vs. overweight people based on the medications they took. ... > full story

Obese workers cost workplace more than insurance, absenteeism, according to new study (October 11, 2010) -- The cost of obesity among US full-time employees is estimated to be .1 billion, according to a new study. ... > full story

How the deaf have super vision: Cat study points to brain reorganization (October 11, 2010) -- Deaf or blind people often report enhanced abilities in their remaining senses, but up until now, no one has explained how that could be. Researchers have now discovered there is a causal link between enhanced visual abilities and reorganization of the part of the brain that usually handles auditory input. ... > full story

Cancer-linked epigenetic effects of smoking found (October 11, 2010) -- For the first time, scientists have reported direct evidence that taking up smoking results in epigenetic changes associated with the development of cancer. ... > full story

Rare hybrid cell key to regulating the immune system (October 11, 2010) -- A cell small in number but powerful in its ability to switch the immune system on or off is a unique hybrid of two well-known immune cell types, researchers report. The discovery of this rare hybrid could have implications for the efficacy of new therapies that manipulate these two cell types to treat diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. ... > full story

Carbohydrate claims can mislead consumers, study finds (October 11, 2010) -- Food manufacturers advertise a variety of foods on grocery store shelves by using nutrient claims on the front of packaging. New research evaluates how consumers are interpreting certain carbohydrate-related content claims and the effects of claims on consumer perceptions of food products. Findings from the study reveal that consumers misinterpret low carbohydrate claims to have health benefits and weight loss qualities beyond their nutrition facts. ... > full story

Conventional theory of modern drug design challenged (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists have uncovered new evidence that challenges the current theory about a process key to the way modern drugs are designed and how they work in the human body. ... > full story

Fragrance exposure: New discovery on the causes of contact allergy (October 11, 2010) -- The fragrances used in many household and skincare products can cause contact allergy when exposed to oxygen in the air, new research from Sweden reveals. ... > full story

Intracellular express: Why transport protein molecules have brakes (October 11, 2010) -- Through single-molecule biomechanical experiments, researchers have revealed in unprecedented detail how an intracellular express delivery service works, and why it is so efficient. With tools including optical tweezers, they manipulated a special type of kinesins, transport proteins that "walk" along intracellular fibers carrying vital substances. They found that of the molecule's two "legs" -- made of two different protein chains -- one puts the brakes on its uninhibited partner when there's no cargo attached. ... > full story

Combining medication and psychosocial treatments may benefit patients with early-stage schizophrenia (October 11, 2010) -- Patients with early-stage schizophrenia who receive a combination of medication and a psychosocial intervention appear less likely to discontinue treatment or relapse -- and may have improved insight, quality of life and social functioning -- than those taking medication alone, according to a new article. ... > full story

Hepatitis C virus infection linked to fat enzyme in liver cells (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists have found that an enzyme associated with the storage of fat in the liver is required for the infectious activity of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). This discovery may offer a new strategy for treating the infection. ... > full story

Monitoring your health with your mobile phone (October 11, 2010) -- Researchers in Belgium have developed a mobile heart monitoring system that allows to view your electrocardiogram on an Android mobile phone. The innovation is a low-power interface that transmits signals from a wireless ECG (electrocardiogram or heart monitoring)-sensor system to an android mobile phone. ... > full story

Tapping p53 to kill cancer cells more effectively while sparing normal cells (October 11, 2010) -- A new finding by researchers in Singapore makes a unique method of cancer treatment now feasible. Their work offers new insight on how to tap on the properties of p53, the "guardian of the genome," to kill cancer cells more effectively while sparing normal cells. ... > full story

Ultra-endurance athletes suffer no cardiac fatigue, even after six days of non-stop exercise, Swedish study finds (October 11, 2010) -- In a study aimed at understanding the effect of prolonged exercise on the heart, researchers in Sweden studied a group of competitors taking part in the Adventure Racing World Championship. The results show no evidence of cardiac fatigue despite the fact that this is a continuous endurance event lasting between five and seven days. ... > full story

Adding topotecan to standard treatment for ovarian cancer does not improve progression-free survival, study finds (October 11, 2010) -- Adding topotecan to carboplatin plus paclitaxel, the standard treatment for ovarian cancer, does not improve progression-free survival in patients and leads to greater toxicity, according to a new study. ... > full story

Certain new therapies for age-related eye disease do not appear to increase heart risks (October 11, 2010) -- Newer treatments for age-related macular degeneration -- including an intravitreous (into the eye) injection of a chemotherapy drug and use of a related compound approved for use against the eye disease -- do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications or death when compared with existing therapies, according to a new study. ... > full story

Treatment of retinal conditions appears to have changed significantly in previous decade (October 11, 2010) -- The number of Medicare recipients undergoing treatment for retinal conditions nearly doubled between 1997 and 2007, with significant shifts in the types of procedures most commonly performed, according to a new report. ... > full story

Carotid stents associated with greater risk of stroke or death than carotid endarterectomy surgery (October 11, 2010) -- For patients with blockages in the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain, carotid artery stenting (a non-surgical treatment) appears to be associated with an increased risk of both short- and long-term adverse outcomes when compared with surgical treatment (carotid endarterectomy), according to a meta-analysis of previously published studies. ... > full story

People blind from birth use visual brain area to improve other senses: Can hear and feel with greater acuity (October 10, 2010) -- People who have been blind from birth make use of the visual parts of their brain to refine their sensation of sound and touch, according to an international team of researchers. ... > full story

Cell survival protein discovery rewrites immune system story (October 10, 2010) -- A discovery by researchers in Australia is set to rewrite a long-held belief about how the body's immune system establishes its memory. ... > full story

Deceitful lily fools flies: Solomon's lily imitates a yeasty odor to lure vinegar flies into a trap (October 10, 2010) -- Scientists in Germany have solved a case of fraud that has been pending for 40 million years. Arum palaestinum, called the Solomon's lily, attracts vinegar flies as pollinators by emitting odor molecules that resemble those produced during alcoholic fermentation of rotting fruit initiated by yeast. The plant accomplishes the illusion of yeast by producing specific chemicals that create the impression of fermentation in the fly brain. ... > full story

Common prostate cancer treatment associated with bone decay (October 10, 2010) -- Using novel technology allowing "virtual bone biopsies" researchers have found that a common treatment for prostate cancer called androgen deprivation therapy is associated with structural decay of cortical and trabecular bone. ... > full story

Direct-to-consumer genetic tests need innovative oversight, experts say (October 10, 2010) -- Direct-to-consumer genetic tests available from retailers and the Internet let people learn about their genomes without going to a doctor, but they raise the question of who is responsible for oversight and regulation of these tests. Critics worry about safety risks if consumers base important lifestyle or medical decisions on test results. A group of researchers believes the solution will require an innovative approach that combines pre-market studies with ongoing post-market evaluations. ... > full story

Researchers confirm prenatal heart defects in spinal muscular atrophy cases (October 10, 2010) -- Researchers believe they have found a critical piece of the puzzle for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) -- the leading genetic cause of infantile death in the world. Nearly one in 6,000 births has SMA, and it is estimated that nearly one in 30 to 40 people have the trait that leads to SMA. ... > full story

Targeted therapy promising for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (October 10, 2010) -- A new type of breast cancer treatment has shown encouraging activity as a first-line therapy in HER2-positive metastatic disease, researchers report. ... > full story

Autistic children are not good at covering up their lies, study shows (October 10, 2010) -- Children with autism will tell white lies to protect other people's feelings and they are not very good at covering up their lies, according to a new study. The study is one of the first scientific studies of lying and autism. ... > full story

New bacterial foe in cystic fibrosis identified (October 10, 2010) -- Exacerbations in cystic fibrosis, or CF, may be linked to chronic infection with a bacterium called Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which was previously thought to simply colonize the CF lung. The finding that chronic infection with S. maltophilia is independently linked with an increased risk of exacerbations gives clinicians and researchers a new potential measure of the health status of CF patients, as well as a new potential target in fighting their disease. ... > full story

Children's agitation after surgery may be preventable (October 10, 2010) -- Temporary combativeness after surgery -- a complication affecting up to half of anesthetized children -- may be preventable with drugs that decrease epinephrine production, according to a pediatric anesthesiologist. ... > full story

Studying illnesses caused by worms: Scientists are learning how immune cells communicate (October 10, 2010) -- A billion people living in underdeveloped areas around the world are infected with parasitic helminthes, worms that survive by residing in and feeding on their hosts. Biomedical researchers are investigating illnesses caused by these gut-dwelling worms in an effort to decipher how immune cells send and receive signals that determine the specific immune response to mount. ... > full story

Early lung cancer detection: Optical technology shows potential for prescreening patients at high risk (October 9, 2010) -- Early detection is critical for improving cancer survival rates. Yet, one of the deadliest cancers in the United States, lung cancer, is notoriously difficult to detect in its early stages. Now, researchers have developed a method to detect lung cancer by merely shining diffuse light on cells swabbed from patients' cheeks. ... > full story

Prediction of epileptic seizures by analyzing brain waves (October 9, 2010) -- Physicists, physicians and neuroscientists took a step towards the ambitious goal of predicting epileptic seizures. ... > full story

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