Selasa, 12 Oktober 2010

ScienceDaily Technology Headlines

for Tuesday, October 12, 2010

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Ultra-precise optical systems for space (October 12, 2010) -- Metal mirrors made with extremely high precision and exactly positioned are the key elements of modern telescopes. A new production technique enables complex optical surfaces to be manufactured with excellent trueness of shape and hitherto unattained positional accuracy. The mirrors have been built for an infrared sounder telescope. ... > full story

Car manufacturers can get vehicles to market more quickly using new simulation model (October 12, 2010) -- A new simulation model is set to significantly reduce the time and costs required to calibrate a new engine, enabling car manufacturers to get new vehicles to market much more quickly. ... > full story

Research reveals likely housing winners and losers (October 12, 2010) -- There is a great deal of uncertainty and speculation about the direction of the housing market in the UK and the USA -- both for home-owners and renters. Researchers have devised a mathematical model to provide some foresight into changes into the housing market. The model could be beneficial to central banks and ministries of finance that have an interest in the effects of the housing market on their economies. ... > full story

Super lasers: Raman amplification compressed laser pulses 1000 times shorter, 300 times more intense (October 11, 2010) -- More brilliant X-rays, more cost-effective methods for developing new energy sources and advanced manufacturing processes are just some of the benefits which may come from a novel technology. ... > full story

Study details structure of potential target for HIV and cancer drugs (October 11, 2010) -- In a technical tour de force, structural biologists have determined the three-dimensional structure of a molecule involved in HIV infection and in many forms of cancer. The high-resolution structure sheds light on how the molecule functions and could point to ways to control its activity, potentially locking out HIV and stalling cancer's spread. ... > full story

Using buildings for flood protection (October 11, 2010) -- Buildings, car parks and roads could, alongside their 'regular' functions, have a role to play in protecting the rest of the city from flooding. This concept could be very useful for the Dutch cities along the River Rhine, for example. ... > full story

New method to identify people by their ears (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists working on biometrics in the UK have found a way to identify ears with a success rate of almost 100 percent. ... > full story

Efficient, inexpensive plastic solar cells coming soon (October 11, 2010) -- Physicists have discovered new properties in a material that could result in efficient and inexpensive plastic solar cells. The discovery reveals that excitons, or energy-carrying particles generated by photons, can travel on the order of a thousand times farther in organic semiconductors than scientists previously observed. This boosts scientists' hopes that organic solar cells may one day overtake silicon in cost and performance. ... > full story

Oral delivery system to treat inflammatory bowel diseases developed (October 11, 2010) -- Researchers have developed a novel approach for delivering small bits of genetic material into the body to improve the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The researchers encapsulated short pieces of RNA into engineered particles called thioketal nanoparticles and orally delivered the genetic material directly to the inflamed intestines of animals. ... > full story

Neptune could not have knocked planetoids in Cold Classical Kuiper Belt to edge of solar system (October 11, 2010) -- New research is challenging popular theory about how part of our solar system formed. Contrary to popular belief, new evidence suggests the planet Neptune can't have knocked a collection of planetoids known as the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt to its current location at the edge of the solar system. ... > full story

Better synchronization helps fish deal with predator threat (October 11, 2010) -- Fish alter their movements when under threat from predators to keep closer together and to help them to blend into the crowd, according to new research. Scientists used a combined computer simulation and experimental study of group behavior to discover that shoaling fish coordinate their movements more frequently when under threat. ... > full story

The secret of the 'Unicorn' revealed (October 11, 2010) -- A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. ... > full story

Artificial white light becomes eye-friendly (October 11, 2010) -- A new class of organic substances emits white light with continuous spectrum. This achievement provides experimental evidence that only single component luminophore will be necessary to construct eye-friendly light sources and displays. ... > full story

Breakthrough e-display means electronics with high speed, high readability and low power usage (October 11, 2010) -- Until today, electronic devices could never have it all: high readability in bright sunlight and the ability to display high-speed content -- then hold that image indefinitely with absolutely zero electrical power usage. A new e-Display design changes that picture. ... > full story

Monitoring your health with your mobile phone (October 11, 2010) -- Researchers in Belgium have developed a mobile heart monitoring system that allows to view your electrocardiogram on an Android mobile phone. The innovation is a low-power interface that transmits signals from a wireless ECG (electrocardiogram or heart monitoring)-sensor system to an android mobile phone. ... > full story

Brightest galaxies tend to cluster in busiest parts of universe, study finds (October 11, 2010) -- For more than a decade, astronomers have been puzzled by bright galaxies in the distant universe that appear to be forming stars at phenomenal rates. What prompted the prolific star creation, they wondered. And what kind of spatial environment did these galaxies inhabit? ... > full story

Saturn's icy moon Enceladus may keep oceans liquid with wobble (October 10, 2010) -- NASA's Cassini spacecraft discovered a giant plume of water gushing from cracks in the surface near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005, indicating that there was a reservoir of water beneath the ice. Cassini data also suggest that the south polar has been continuously releasing about 13 billion watts of energy. But how does Enceladus stay warm enough to maintain liquid water underground? ... > full story

Researchers design, fabricate innovative energy harvesting device (October 10, 2010) -- Electrical engineers have reported success in designing and fabricating a device that allows microscale electronic devices to harvest their own wasted energy. ... > full story

Technique allows researchers to examine how materials bond at the atomic level (October 10, 2010) -- An new approach gives scientists insight into the way silicon bonds with other materials at the atomic level. The technique could lead to improved understanding of and control over bond formation at the atomic level, and opportunities for the creation of new devices and more efficient microchips. ... > full story

Using a complex systems approach to study educational policy (October 10, 2010) -- Educational policy is controversial: positions on achievement gaps, troubled schools and class size are emotionally charged, and research studies often come to very different conclusions. Researchers propose a new way of looking at it: treat education as a complex system (taking into account all interactions) and use computer modeling and network analysis to provide a comprehensive look at the outcomes of policy choices. This could help integrate insights and better inform educational policy. ... > full story

Early lung cancer detection: Optical technology shows potential for prescreening patients at high risk (October 9, 2010) -- Early detection is critical for improving cancer survival rates. Yet, one of the deadliest cancers in the United States, lung cancer, is notoriously difficult to detect in its early stages. Now, researchers have developed a method to detect lung cancer by merely shining diffuse light on cells swabbed from patients' cheeks. ... > full story

Microfluidic devices advance 3-D tissue engineering (October 9, 2010) -- A new method that generates three-dimensional (3-D) tissue models for studying bacterial infection of orthopedic implants has been developed. ... > full story

Blind inventors develop free software to enable the blind to use computers (October 9, 2010) -- Inventors have developed free, open-source software to enable blind people to use computers. For many blind people, computers are inaccessible. It can cost upwards of 00 to purchase "screen reader" software, but two blind computer programmers have solved this problem. ... > full story

Cassini catches Saturn moons in paintball fight (October 9, 2010) -- Scientists using data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft have learned that distinctive, colorful bands and splotches embellish the surfaces of Saturn's inner, mid-size moons. The reddish and bluish hues on the icy surfaces of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea appear to be the aftermath of bombardments large and small. ... > full story

Voice phishing: System to trace telephone call paths across multiple networks developed (October 9, 2010) -- Phishing scams are making the leap from email to the world's voice systems, and researchers have found a way to tag fraudulent calls with a digital "fingerprint" that will help separate legitimate calls from phone scams. ... > full story

Effects of hydrogen on growing carbon nanotubes (October 9, 2010) -- Carbon nanotubes have many potential uses in nanotechnology, optics, electronics, and many other fields. Their exact properties depend on their structure, but controlling that structure, which is determined during their initial formation, is difficult, and scientists do not know precisely how they grow. Researchers now shed new light on the process. ... > full story

Haze on Saturn's moon Titan may hold ingredients for life (October 8, 2010) -- Simulating possible chemical processes in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, a planetary research team found amino acids and nucleotide bases in the mix -- the most important ingredients of life on Earth. ... > full story

Measurements of CO<sub>2</sub> and CO in China's air indicate sharply improved combustion efficiency (October 8, 2010) -- A collaborative, six-year study of carbon dioxide levels in Beijing and surrounding provinces suggests that combustion efficiency, a component of overall energy efficiency, is improving in the region. The findings are generally consistent with official Chinese government statistics and could bolster their credibility as international negotiations proceed on commitments of China and other nations to combat climate change. ... > full story

Half-time gamblers give stock market insight (October 8, 2010) -- Computer-modeled comparison of online football gamblers' behavior during play and during half-time shows distinct real-time differences, raising the question: What motivates betting behavior when play is not underway? ... > full story

NASA's WMAP project completes satellite operations: Mission observed universe's oldest light (October 8, 2010) -- After nine years of scanning the sky, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) space mission has concluded its observations of the cosmic microwave background, the oldest light in the universe. The spacecraft has not only given scientists their best look at this remnant glow, but also established the scientific model that describes the history and structure of the universe. ... > full story

Bacteria can stand-up and 'walk' (October 8, 2010) -- Researchers have discovered that bacteria are capable of "standing up" and moving while vertical. Apart from being an extraordinary insight into the behavior of bacteria, the findings have important biomedical implications. ... > full story

Tracking device fits on the head of a pin: Mini-gyroscopes to guide smartphones and medical equipment (October 8, 2010) -- A researcher in Israel has developed nano-sized optical gyroscopes that can fit on the head of a pin -- and, more usefully, on an average-sized computer chip -- without compromising the device's sensitivity. These gyroscopes will have the ability to pick up smaller rotation rates, delivering higher accuracy while maintaining smaller dimensions. ... > full story

Chemists simplify biodiesel conversion (October 8, 2010) -- Chemists have streamlined the conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel, eliminating the need for corrosive chemicals to perform the reactions. The researchers were able to pull off the waste vegetable oil-to-biodiesel conversion in a single reaction vessel using environmentally friendly catalysts and making the conversion six times faster than current methods. ... > full story

'Living dinosaurs' in space: Galaxies in today's Universe thought to have existed only in distant past (October 8, 2010) -- An astronomy student in Australia has found 'living dinosaurs' in space: galaxies in today's Universe that were thought to have existed only in the distant past. ... > full story

Can you analyze me now? Cell phones bring spectroscopy to the classroom (October 8, 2010) -- A chemistry professor has developed a method using a few basic, inexpensive supplies and a cell phone camera to build a spectrometer, an important analytical chemistry instrument, for high school classes. Students can see its workings and play with its components, encouraging critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. ... > full story

Elusive intermediary: Newly discovered protein may help improve crop yields, solar cells (October 8, 2010) -- Plants use specialized protein complexes to collect the light that drives photosynthesis. Researchers in Germany have now identified a protein that is necessary for the assembly of one such complex. The discovery could lead to improved crop yields and might even form the basis for new types of solar cells. ... > full story

New tool in the fight against tuberculosis: Algorithm enables cell-scale simulations (October 8, 2010) -- Researchers have developed a way to harness prodigious quantities of genomic and metabolic data by developing an algorithm that automatically integrates both data sets. The model, called probabilistic regulation of metabolism, enables researchers to perturb a regulatory gene or metabolic process and see how that affects the entire network. Although the researchers studied tuberculosis, the method holds promise for reconstructing network models for any organism with appropriate genomic data. ... > full story

Structure of plastic solar cells impedes their efficiency (October 8, 2010) -- Scientists have found that the low rate of energy conversion in all-polymer solar-cell technology is caused by the structure of the solar cells themselves. ... > full story

Consistent evidence: Speed cameras do reduce injuries and deaths, Australian study finds (October 8, 2010) -- Placing speed cameras on roads reduces the number of road traffic injuries and deaths, concludes a team of researchers from Australia. ... > full story

Hubble astronomers uncover an overheated early universe (October 7, 2010) -- If you think global warming is bad, 11 billion years ago the entire universe underwent, well, universal warming. The consequence was that fierce blasts of radiation from voracious black holes stunted the growth of some small galaxies for a stretch of 500 million years. Astronomers used the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) to identify an era, from 11.7 to 11.3 billion years ago, when the universe burned off a fog of primeval helium. This heated intergalactic gas was inhibited from gravitationally collapsing to form new generations of stars in some small galaxies. ... > full story

New computer switches handle heat that renders transistors useless; Work takes a page from Victorian inventor (October 7, 2010) -- Researchers have built electromechanical switches to replace transistors in high-heat computing. ... > full story

Surprise: Two wheels safer than four in off-road riding and racing, study finds (October 7, 2010) -- In research that may surprise off-road riding enthusiasts and safety experts, researchers have found that crashes involving ATVs -- four-wheeled all-terrain vehicles -- are significantly more dangerous than crashes involving two-wheeled off-road motorcycles, such as those used in extreme sports like Motocross. ... > full story

Norwegian researchers at forefront of oil spill modelling after Deepwater Horizon accident (October 7, 2010) -- What has happened to the 4.9. million barrels of crude oil that were discharged in the Deepwater Horizon accident? Has it dissolved in the water masses? Has it accumulated in the ocean depths? Among those seeking answers are Norwegian researchers at the forefront of modelling oil behaviour in water masses. One commonly used tactic for managing spilled oil is to apply large amounts of chemical dispersants. Norwegian researchers have provided expertise in the modelling and use of dispersants in the wake of the Gulf of Mexico accident. ... > full story

Water discovered on second asteroid, may be even more common (October 7, 2010) -- Water ice on asteroids may be more common than expected, according to a new study. ... > full story

New drug blocks morphine's effects on breathing -- but not on pain (October 7, 2010) -- A new drug called repinotan blocks the respiratory depressant effects of morphine-like opioid drugs -- without altering their potent pain-relieving effects, according to a new study. ... > full story

Quantum computing research edges toward practicality (October 7, 2010) -- Physicists have taken an important step to the ultimate construction of a quantum computer. ... > full story

BLADE software eliminates 'drive-by downloads' from malicious websites (October 7, 2010) -- Researchers have developed a new tool that eliminates drive-by download threats. BLADE is browser-independent and when tested, it blocked all drive-by malware installation attempts from more than 1,900 malicious websites, produced no false positives and required minimal resources from the computer. ... > full story

New computer modelling system predicts responses to HIV and AIDS treatments (October 7, 2010) -- HIV-TRePS is a new system that predicts how an HIV patient will respond to different drug regimens, with an accuracy of around 80%. It is free to use, accessed over the Internet, and helps physicians choose the optimum combination of drugs for each patient. ... > full story

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