Kamis, 17 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Environment Headlines

for Thursday, February 17, 2011

Welcome to another edition of ScienceDaily's email newsletter. You can change your subscription options or unsubscribe at any time.

Why are vines overtaking the American tropics? (February 17, 2011) -- Vines are becoming more abundant in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. This fundamental change in forest structure may have a profound impact on the animals, human communities and businesses that depend on forests for their livelihood. ... > full story

Fossil antelopes shed new light on today's sub-Saharan mammals (February 17, 2011) -- Modern-day Africa south of the Sahara is home to a unique variety of mammals, a great number of which are not found anywhere else in the world. New fossil antelope discoveries have provided a glimpse into the biogeographic configuration of Africa over the last seven million years. ... > full story

Acid oceans demand greater reef care (February 17, 2011) -- The more humanity acidifies and warms the world's oceans with carbon emissions, the harder we will have to work to save our coral reefs. That's the blunt message from a major new study which finds that ocean acidification and global warming will combine with local impacts like overfishing and nutrient runoff to weaken the world's coral reefs right when they are struggling to survive. ... > full story

New romaine lettuce lines launched; Breeding lines prove dieback resistant, show improved shelf life (February 17, 2011) -- Dieback disease caused by soil-borne viruses affects romaine and leaf-type lettuce, often resulting in extensive crop loss. Researchers in California introduced two new romaine breeding lines that proved exemplary in terms of both disease resistance and shelf life. In replicated field trials the two breeding lines showed complete resistance to dieback. Testing of salad-cut lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging indicated slower decay in the two new lines compared with other dieback-resistant romaine varieties. ... > full story

Finding a way to extend tomato shelf-life (February 16, 2011) -- Tomatoes spend so much time on shelves and in refrigerators that an estimated 20 percent are lost to spoilage, according to the US Department of Agriculture. But scientists with USDA's Agricultural Research Service are working with colleagues at Purdue University to extend the shelf life of tomatoes. The research also may lead to tomatoes that taste better and are more nutritious. ... > full story

Iceland volcano drilling suggests magma could become source of high-grade energy (February 16, 2011) -- Geologists drilling an exploratory geothermal well in 2009 in the Krafla volcano, Iceland, encountered a problem they were unprepared for: magma which flowed into the well at 2.1 kilometers depth, forcing the researchers to terminate the drilling. The research team believes it should be possible to find reasonably shallow bodies of magma elsewhere in Iceland and the world, which would make for attractive sources of high-grade energy. ... > full story

Ultra-fast suction traps leave no chance for prey animals (February 16, 2011) -- Bladderworts (Utricularia spp.) constitute the largest genus of carnivorous plants. They catch and digest prey animals, mainly small crustaceans, with millimetre-sized suction traps. These so-called bladders have fascinated scientists since Darwin's early works on carnivorous plants. Researchers have now investigated the biophysical details of this prey capture mechanism for the first time. ... > full story

New pneumococcal vaccine approach successful in early tests; Vaccine inhibits bacteria by mimicking naturally-acquired immunity (February 16, 2011) -- Pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) accounts for as much as 11 percent of mortality in young children worldwide. While successful vaccines exist, they are expensive and only work against specific pneumococcal strains, with the risk of becoming less effective as new strains emerge. Researchers have now developed a new vaccine candidate that is potentially cheaper and able to protect against any pneumococcal strain. ... > full story

Sterility in frogs caused by environmental pharmaceutical progestogens, study finds (February 16, 2011) -- Frogs appear to be very sensitive to progestogens, a kind of pharmaceutical that is released into the environment. Female tadpoles that swim in water containing a specific progestogen, levonorgestrel, are subject to abnormal ovarian and oviduct development, resulting in adult sterility, according to new research. ... > full story

Fossils may look like human bones: Biological anthropologists question claims for human ancestry (February 16, 2011) -- "Too simple" and "not so fast" suggest biological anthropologists about the origins of human ancestry. The anthropologists question the claims that several prominent fossil discoveries made in the last decade are our human ancestors. ... > full story

New way to estimate global rainfall and track ocean pollution (February 16, 2011) -- A new study suggests a new way to estimate how much of the ocean's pollution is falling from the sky. The new findings can help improve scientific understanding of how toxic airborne chemicals, from the burning of fossil fuels and industrial power plants emissions, are impacting the oceans globally. ... > full story

Pheromone increases foraging honey bees, leads to healthier hives (February 16, 2011) -- The application of a naturally occurring pheromone to honey bee test colonies increases colony growth resulting in stronger hives overall, according to a new study. The study comes amid national concern in the U.S. over the existence of honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) -- a combination of events that result in the death of a bee colony. The causes behind CCD remain unknown, but researchers are focusing on four possible contributing factors: disease, pests, environmental conditions and nutrition. ... > full story

Researchers model fetal-to-adult hemoglobin switching: Important step towards cure for blood diseases (February 16, 2011) -- Researchers have engineered mice that model the switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin, an important step towards curing genetic blood diseases such as sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia. ... > full story

Inhaling 'Red Mud Disaster' dust may not be as harmful to health as feared (February 16, 2011) -- Scientists in Hungary are reporting that the potential health effects of last October's Red Mud Disaster, one of the worst environmental accidents in Europe, may be less dangerous than previously feared. Their study concludes that the dust from the mud may be no more harmful than particles of ordinary urban air pollution. ... > full story

Living fast but dying older is possible -- if you're a sheep (February 16, 2011) -- Modern humans may live longer than hunter gatherers, chimpanzees, mountain sheep or the European robin, but what does that tell us about how we age relative to other species? Not much, according to new research, which looks at a new way of comparing how different species age. ... > full story

Lavender oil has potent antifungal effect (February 16, 2011) -- Lavender oil could be used to combat the increasing incidence of antifungal-resistant infections, according to a new study. The essential oil shows a potent antifungal effect against strains of fungi responsible for common skin and nail infections. ... > full story

If greenhouse gas emissions stopped now, Earth would still likely get warmer, new research shows (February 16, 2011) -- As debate continues about potential policies to curb greenhouse gas emissions, new research shows the world is already committed to a warmer climate because of emissions that have occurred up to now. Even if all emissions were stopped now, temperatures would remain higher than pre-Industrial Revolution levels because the greenhouse gases already emitted are likely to persist in the atmosphere for thousands of years. ... > full story

Extinction predictor to help protect coral reefs (February 16, 2011) -- More than a third of coral reef fish species are in jeopardy of local extinction from the impacts of climate change on coral reefs, a new scientific study has found. A new predictive method developed by an international team of marine scientists has found that a third of reef fishes studied across the Indian Ocean are potentially vulnerable to increasing stresses on the reefs due to climate change. ... > full story

Atomic model of tropomyosin bound to actin (February 16, 2011) -- New research sheds light on the interaction between the semi-flexible protein tropomyosin and actin thin filaments. The study provides the first detailed atomic model of tropomyosin bound to actin and significantly advances the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these key cellular proteins. ... > full story

Active harpy eagle nest found in Maya Mountains of Belize (February 16, 2011) -- Biologists are studying what is thought to be the first active harpy eagle nest ever recorded in Belize, where the predatory birds were previously thought to be extinct. ... > full story

Monitoring killer mice from space: Green on satellite images warns of hantavirus outbreaks (February 16, 2011) -- The risk of deadly hantavirus outbreaks in people can be predicted months ahead of time by using satellite images to monitor surges in vegetation that boost mouse populations, a new study says. The method also might forecast outbreaks of other rodent-borne illnesses worldwide. ... > full story

Good diets fight bad Alzheimer's genes: Diets high in fish oil have a beneficial effect in patients at risk, researcher says (February 16, 2011) -- Recent research suggests that a diet high in omega-3 oils and low in cholesterol can significantly reduce the negative affects of the APOE4 gene, which is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease. ... > full story

Two new plants discovered in Spain (February 16, 2011) -- Just when everyone thought that almost every plant species on the Iberian Peninsula had been discovered, Spanish researchers have discovered Taraxacum decastroi and Taraxacum lacianense, two dandelions from the Pyrenees and the Cordillera Cantábrica mountain range, respectively. ... > full story

Uncovering the genome secrets of the Blackleg fungus (February 16, 2011) -- The genome of the Blackleg fungus, which causes the most damaging disease to canola crops worldwide, has been sequenced for the first time. ... > full story

New malaria vaccine depends on … mosquito bites? (February 15, 2011) -- The same menace that spreads malaria -- the mosquito bite -- could help wipe out the deadly disease, according to researchers working on a new vaccine. ... > full story

Method of DNA repair linked to higher likelihood of genetic mutation (February 15, 2011) -- Accurate transmission of genetic information requires the precise replication of DNA. Errors in DNA replication are common and nature has developed several cellular mechanisms for repairing these mistakes. Mutations, which can be deleterious (development of cancerous cells), or beneficial (evolutionary adaption), arise from uncorrected errors. Researchers report that a method by which cells repair breaks in their DNA, known as break-induced replication, is up to 2,800 times more likely to cause genetic mutation than normal DNA synthesis. ... > full story

Sentries in the garden shed: Plants that can detect environmental contaminants, explosives (February 15, 2011) -- Biologists have shown that plants can serve as highly specific sentries for environmental pollutants and explosives. How? By rewiring the plant's natural signaling processes. ... > full story

Science alone does not establish source of anthrax used in 2001 mailings, report finds (February 15, 2011) -- A US National Research Council committee asked to examine the scientific approaches used and conclusions reached by the Federal Bureau of Investigation during its investigation of the 2001 Bacillus anthracis mailings has determined that it is not possible to reach a definitive conclusion about the origins of the anthrax in letters mailed to New York City and Washington, D.C., based solely on the available scientific evidence. ... > full story

Molecular link between reproduction in yeast and humans (February 15, 2011) -- A novel study draws a completely unexpected link between reproductive proteins in humans and proteins involved in fertilization in invertebrates, as well as mating between haploid cells in yeast. Because human and yeast are separated by 1 billion years of evolution, these findings may have important implications for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sex, and how they originated. ... > full story

Worldwide sulfur emissions rose between 2000-2005, after decade of decline (February 15, 2011) -- A new analysis of sulfur emissions shows that after declining for a decade, worldwide emissions rose again in 2000 due largely to international shipping and a growing Chinese economy. An accurate read on sulfur emissions will help researchers predict future changes in climate and determine present day effects on the atmosphere, health and the environment. ... > full story

Rising seas will affect major US coastal cities by 2100, new research finds (February 15, 2011) -- Rising sea levels could threaten an average of 9 percent of the land within 180 US coastal cities by 2100, according to new research. The research is the first analysis of vulnerability to sea-level rise that includes every US coastal city in the lower 48 with a population of 50,000 or more. The Gulf and southern Atlantic coasts will be particularly hard hit. ... > full story

Genetic evidence that antioxidants can help treat cancer (February 15, 2011) -- Researchers have genetic evidence suggesting the antioxidant drugs currently used to treat lung disease, malaria and even the common cold can also help prevent and treat cancers because they fight against mitochondrial oxidative stress -- a culprit in driving tumor growth. ... > full story

Techniques to manipulate plant adaption in arid climates developed (February 15, 2011) -- By manipulating a specific gene, plant researchers have discovered they can impact lateral root growth. Lateral root development is a highly regulated process that determines a plant's growth and ability to adapt to life in different environmental conditions. ... > full story

Earliest humans not so different from us, research suggests (February 15, 2011) -- New research suggests that "behavioral modernity" is a flawed concept. In truth, early humans were not much different from us, an archaeologist argues. ... > full story

Vegans' elevated heart risk requires omega-3s and B12, study suggests (February 15, 2011) -- People who follow a vegan lifestyle -- strict vegetarians who try to eat no meat or animal products of any kind -- may increase their risk of developing blood clots and atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries," which are conditions that can lead to heart attacks and stroke, study suggests. ... > full story

Don't blame the pill for estrogen in drinking water (February 15, 2011) -- Contrary to popular belief, birth control pills account for less than 1 percent of the estrogens found in the nation's drinking water supplies, scientists have concluded in an analysis of studies published on the topic. Their report suggests that most of the sex hormone -- source of concern as an endocrine disruptor with possible adverse effects on people and wildlife -- enters drinking water supplies from other sources. ... > full story

World phosphorous use crosses critical threshold (February 15, 2011) -- Recalculating the global use of phosphorous, a fertilizer linchpin of modern agriculture, a team of researchers warns that the world's stocks may soon be in short supply and that overuse in the industrialized world has become a leading cause of the pollution of lakes, rivers and streams. ... > full story

How plants near Chernobyl shrug off radiation (February 15, 2011) -- Scientists are reporting discovery of the biological secrets that enable plants growing near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to adapt and flourish in highly radioactive soil -- legacy of the 1986 nuclear disaster in the Ukraine. ... > full story

Ancient Mesoamerican sculpture uncovered in southern Mexico (February 15, 2011) -- With one arm raised and a determined scowl, the figure looks ready to march right off his carved tablet and into the history books. If only we knew who he was -- corn god? Tribal chief? Sacred priest? ... > full story

Turtle populations affected by climate, habitat loss and overexploitation (February 15, 2011) -- Although turtles have been on the planet for about 220 million years, scientists now report that almost half of all turtle species is threatened. ... > full story

New research changes understanding of C4 plant evolution (February 15, 2011) -- A new analysis of fossilized grass-pollen grains deposited on ancient European lake and sea bottoms 16-35 million years ago reveals that C4 grasses evolved earlier than previously thought. This new evidence casts doubt on the widely held belief that the rise of this incredibly productive group of plants was driven by a large drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Oligocene epoch. ... > full story

Macho muscle cells force their way to fusion (February 15, 2011) -- The fusion of muscle cells is a power struggle that involves a smaller mobile antagonist that points at, pokes and finally pushes into its larger, stationary partner using a newly identified finger-like projection, according to new research. ... > full story

X-rays show why van Gogh paintings lose their shine (February 14, 2011) -- Scientists using synchrotron X-rays have identified the chemical reaction in two van Gogh paintings that alters originally bright yellow colors into brown shades. This process is observed in many 19th century paintings. Microsamples of period paint samples and of the two paintings were analyzed, revealing how the chrome yellow pigments are covered by a brown shade under the influence of sunlight. ... > full story

Culling can't control deadly bat disease, mathematical model shows (February 14, 2011) -- Culling will not stop the spread of a deadly fungus that is threatening to wipe out hibernating bats in North America, according to a new mathematical model. ... > full story

Satisfied in submerged cages: Salmon happy in deeper water (February 14, 2011) -- It was thought to be impossible to farm salmon in submerged sea cages. But new research demonstrates otherwise. These findings may also prove valuable in combating sea lice and algae. ... > full story

Not so fast: Differences in the first embryonic cell lineage decision of mammals (February 14, 2011) -- New research shows that all not mammals are created equal. In fact, this work shows that the animals most commonly used by scientists to study mammalian genetics -- mice -- develop unusually quickly and may not always be representative of embryonic development in other mammals. The study identifies significant differences in the timing of cell fate commitment during mouse and cattle embryonic development and raises important strategic implications for the generation of embryonic stem cells. ... > full story

Quest for designer bacteria uncovers a 'Spy' (February 14, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a molecular assistant called Spy that helps bacteria excel at producing proteins for medical and industrial purposes. ... > full story

Deep-sea volcanic vents discovered in chilly waters of Southern Ocean (February 14, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a new set of deep-sea volcanic vents in the chilly waters of the Southern Ocean. The discovery is the fourth made by the research team in three years, which suggests that deep-sea vents may be more common in our oceans than previously thought. ... > full story

Copyright 1995-2010 © ScienceDaily LLC. All rights reserved. Terms of use.

This message was sent to beritanarablog@gmail.com from:

ScienceDaily | 1 Research Court, Suite 450 | Rockville, MD 20850

Email Marketing by iContact - Try It Free!

Update Profile  |  Forward To a Friend