Rabu, 16 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Wednesday, February 16, 2011

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If greenhouse gas emissions stopped now, Earth would still likely get warmer, new research shows (February 16, 2011) -- As debate continues about potential policies to curb greenhouse gas emissions, new research shows the world is already committed to a warmer climate because of emissions that have occurred up to now. Even if all emissions were stopped now, temperatures would remain higher than pre-Industrial Revolution levels because the greenhouse gases already emitted are likely to persist in the atmosphere for thousands of years. ... > full story

New study finds no cognitive impairment among ecstasy users (February 16, 2011) -- In contrast to many prior studies, ecstasy users in a new study showed no signs of cognitive impairment attributable to drug use: ecstasy use did not decrease mental ability. ... > full story

Extinction predictor to help protect coral reefs (February 16, 2011) -- More than a third of coral reef fish species are in jeopardy of local extinction from the impacts of climate change on coral reefs, a new scientific study has found. A new predictive method developed by an international team of marine scientists has found that a third of reef fishes studied across the Indian Ocean are potentially vulnerable to increasing stresses on the reefs due to climate change. ... > full story

Atomic model of tropomyosin bound to actin (February 16, 2011) -- New research sheds light on the interaction between the semi-flexible protein tropomyosin and actin thin filaments. The study provides the first detailed atomic model of tropomyosin bound to actin and significantly advances the understanding of the dynamic relationship between these key cellular proteins. ... > full story

Active harpy eagle nest found in Maya Mountains of Belize (February 16, 2011) -- Biologists are studying what is thought to be the first active harpy eagle nest ever recorded in Belize, where the predatory birds were previously thought to be extinct. ... > full story

Alcohol's disruptive effects on sleep may be more pronounced among women (February 16, 2011) -- Researchers have known for decades that alcohol can initially deepen sleep during the early part of the night but then disrupt sleep during the latter part of the night; this is called a "rebound effect." A new study of the influence of gender and family history of alcoholism on sleep has found that intoxication can increase feelings of sleepiness while at the same time disrupt actual sleep measures in healthy women more than in healthy men. ... > full story

Monitoring killer mice from space: Green on satellite images warns of hantavirus outbreaks (February 16, 2011) -- The risk of deadly hantavirus outbreaks in people can be predicted months ahead of time by using satellite images to monitor surges in vegetation that boost mouse populations, a new study says. The method also might forecast outbreaks of other rodent-borne illnesses worldwide. ... > full story

Good diets fight bad Alzheimer's genes: Diets high in fish oil have a beneficial effect in patients at risk, researcher says (February 16, 2011) -- Recent research suggests that a diet high in omega-3 oils and low in cholesterol can significantly reduce the negative affects of the APOE4 gene, which is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease. ... > full story

Two new plants discovered in Spain (February 16, 2011) -- Just when everyone thought that almost every plant species on the Iberian Peninsula had been discovered, Spanish researchers have discovered Taraxacum decastroi and Taraxacum lacianense, two dandelions from the Pyrenees and the Cordillera Cantábrica mountain range, respectively. ... > full story

Designing new molecular tools to study the life and death of a cancer cell (February 16, 2011) -- Basic and translational research on cancer, and development of new cancer therapeutics, has focused on different aspects of cancer cellular function. One area of focus is the life and death of a cancer cell. In a new study, scientists have developed new synthetic molecules as models to study the structural and functional role of the proline residue and tetrapeptide sequence important for the regulation of cancer cell apoptosis by the XIAP protein. ... > full story

Uncovering the genome secrets of the Blackleg fungus (February 16, 2011) -- The genome of the Blackleg fungus, which causes the most damaging disease to canola crops worldwide, has been sequenced for the first time. ... > full story

One third of us have tried dating websites with middle-aged suitors using them most (February 16, 2011) -- A new study suggests that nearly one in three of us who use the internet have visited online dating sites. An international survey of 24,000 men and women who are presently online found that just six per cent had gone to dating websites in 1997 but by 2009, 30 per cent of the sample had tried them with 15 per cent finding their current partner that way. ... > full story

Mental retardation gene provides insights into brain formation (February 15, 2011) -- Scientists have uncovered new clues to memory and learning by exploring the function of a single gene, and at the same time, have provided insights into a form of human mental retardation. ... > full story

Active wound healing can accelerate tumor formation, study finds (February 15, 2011) -- Processes that are involved in active wound healing can lead to an increased risk for basal cell carcinoma in the skin, according to a new study. ... > full story

New malaria vaccine depends on … mosquito bites? (February 15, 2011) -- The same menace that spreads malaria -- the mosquito bite -- could help wipe out the deadly disease, according to researchers working on a new vaccine. ... > full story

Method of DNA repair linked to higher likelihood of genetic mutation (February 15, 2011) -- Accurate transmission of genetic information requires the precise replication of DNA. Errors in DNA replication are common and nature has developed several cellular mechanisms for repairing these mistakes. Mutations, which can be deleterious (development of cancerous cells), or beneficial (evolutionary adaption), arise from uncorrected errors. Researchers report that a method by which cells repair breaks in their DNA, known as break-induced replication, is up to 2,800 times more likely to cause genetic mutation than normal DNA synthesis. ... > full story

Reconfigurable supercomputing outperforms rivals in important science applications (February 15, 2011) -- University of Florida researchers say their supercomputer, named Novo-G, is the world's fastest reconfigurable supercomputer and is able to perform some important science applications faster than the Chinese supercomputer touted as the world's most powerful. ... > full story

You are what you app: Choice of smartphone applications define your computing style (February 15, 2011) -- The applications you add to your smartphone can label you as a specific "appitypes," says a professor of science and technology studies. ... > full story

NASA releases images of human-made crater on comet (February 15, 2011) -- NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned new images of a comet showing a scar resulting from the 2005 Deep Impact mission. The images also showed the comet has a fragile and weak nucleus. ... > full story

'Healthy' patients at high risk of cardiac death identified (February 15, 2011) -- The way the heart responds to an early beat is predictive of cardiac death, especially for people with no conventional markers of cardiovascular disease, according to new research. ... > full story

Sentries in the garden shed: Plants that can detect environmental contaminants, explosives (February 15, 2011) -- Biologists have shown that plants can serve as highly specific sentries for environmental pollutants and explosives. How? By rewiring the plant's natural signaling processes. ... > full story

Obesity and knee osteoarthritis shorten healthy years of life (February 15, 2011) -- Due to obesity and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, Americans over the age of 50 will together lose the equivalent of 86 million healthy years of life, concluded researchers who investigated the potential gains in quality and quantity of life that could be achieved averting losses due to obesity and knee OA. ... > full story

Science alone does not establish source of anthrax used in 2001 mailings, report finds (February 15, 2011) -- A US National Research Council committee asked to examine the scientific approaches used and conclusions reached by the Federal Bureau of Investigation during its investigation of the 2001 Bacillus anthracis mailings has determined that it is not possible to reach a definitive conclusion about the origins of the anthrax in letters mailed to New York City and Washington, D.C., based solely on the available scientific evidence. ... > full story

Why problem drinking during adolescence is never a 'phase' (February 15, 2011) -- The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) is widely used to assess adolescent drinking-related problems. Researchers used adolescent RAPI scores to(examine diagnoses of alcohol dependence during young adulthood. More drinking-related problems experienced at age 18 were associated with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence at age 25, and this predictive(association was stronger in females than males. ... > full story

Molecular link between reproduction in yeast and humans (February 15, 2011) -- A novel study draws a completely unexpected link between reproductive proteins in humans and proteins involved in fertilization in invertebrates, as well as mating between haploid cells in yeast. Because human and yeast are separated by 1 billion years of evolution, these findings may have important implications for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sex, and how they originated. ... > full story

Hearing loss associated with development of dementia (February 15, 2011) -- Older adults with hearing loss appear more likely to develop dementia, and their risk increases as hearing loss becomes more severe, according to a new article. ... > full story

New wireless technology developed for faster, more efficient networks (February 15, 2011) -- A new technology that allows wireless signals to be sent and received simultaneously on a single channel has been developed. The research could help build faster, more efficient communication networks, at least doubling the speed of existing networks. ... > full story

Gene that regulates immune system linked to preeclampsia (February 15, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered that the placentas of women who suffer preeclampsia during pregnancy have an overabundance of a gene associated with the regulation of the body's immune system. ... > full story

Worldwide sulfur emissions rose between 2000-2005, after decade of decline (February 15, 2011) -- A new analysis of sulfur emissions shows that after declining for a decade, worldwide emissions rose again in 2000 due largely to international shipping and a growing Chinese economy. An accurate read on sulfur emissions will help researchers predict future changes in climate and determine present day effects on the atmosphere, health and the environment. ... > full story

Many consumers believe 36 months is longer than 3 years (February 15, 2011) -- Consumers often have a distorted view when they compare information that involves numbers, according to a new study. ... > full story

Rising seas will affect major US coastal cities by 2100, new research finds (February 15, 2011) -- Rising sea levels could threaten an average of 9 percent of the land within 180 US coastal cities by 2100, according to new research. The research is the first analysis of vulnerability to sea-level rise that includes every US coastal city in the lower 48 with a population of 50,000 or more. The Gulf and southern Atlantic coasts will be particularly hard hit. ... > full story

Genetic evidence that antioxidants can help treat cancer (February 15, 2011) -- Researchers have genetic evidence suggesting the antioxidant drugs currently used to treat lung disease, malaria and even the common cold can also help prevent and treat cancers because they fight against mitochondrial oxidative stress -- a culprit in driving tumor growth. ... > full story

Milestone in path to large-scale quantum computing reached: New level of quantum control of light (February 15, 2011) -- An important milestone toward the realization of a large-scale quantum computer, and further demonstration of a new level of the quantum control of light, were just accomplished. ... > full story

Obese women may be less likely to develop glaucoma (February 15, 2011) -- Obesity may be associated with higher eye pressure and a decreased risk of open-angle glaucoma in women but not men, according to a new article. ... > full story

Techniques to manipulate plant adaption in arid climates developed (February 15, 2011) -- By manipulating a specific gene, plant researchers have discovered they can impact lateral root growth. Lateral root development is a highly regulated process that determines a plant's growth and ability to adapt to life in different environmental conditions. ... > full story

Calorie labeling has no effect on teenagers' or parents' food purchases, study finds (February 15, 2011) -- A new study challenges the idea that calorie labeling has an effect on the purchasing behavior of teenagers or what parents purchase for their children. ... > full story

Earliest humans not so different from us, research suggests (February 15, 2011) -- New research suggests that "behavioral modernity" is a flawed concept. In truth, early humans were not much different from us, an archaeologist argues. ... > full story

How p53 is inactivated in cancerous cells, allowing tumors to grow (February 15, 2011) -- One of the most important genes in the human genome is called p53 and its function is to suppress tumors, according to a team of researchers. They discovered the mechanism by which p53 is inactivated in cancerous cells, allowing tumors to grow. ... > full story

Physicists isolate bound states in graphene-superconductor junctions (February 15, 2011) -- Researchers have documented the first observations of some unusual physics when two prominent electric materials are connected: superconductors and graphene. When sandwiched between superconductors, graphene can adopt superconducting capacity because paired electrons from the superconductor are translated to Andreev bound states (ABS) in the graphene. The researchers isolated and manipulated individual ABS by confining them to a graphene quantum dot, which could be used as a qubit for quantum computing. ... > full story

Vegans' elevated heart risk requires omega-3s and B12, study suggests (February 15, 2011) -- People who follow a vegan lifestyle -- strict vegetarians who try to eat no meat or animal products of any kind -- may increase their risk of developing blood clots and atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries," which are conditions that can lead to heart attacks and stroke, study suggests. ... > full story

Two pesticides -- rotenone and paraquat -- linked to Parkinson's disease, study suggests (February 15, 2011) -- New research shows a link between use of two pesticides, rotenone and paraquat, and Parkinson's disease. People who used either pesticide developed Parkinson's disease approximately 2.5 times more often than non-users. ... > full story

Women with eating disorders draw a different picture of themselves than women without, study suggests (February 15, 2011) -- Women suffering from anorexia or bulimia draw themselves with prominently different characteristics than women who do not have eating disorders and who are considered of normal weight, suggests a new study. ... > full story

Jewel-toned organic phosphorescent crystals: A new class of light-emitting material (February 15, 2011) -- Pure organic compounds that glow in jewel tones could potentially lead to cheaper, more efficient and flexible display screens, among other applications. ... > full story

Abnormal control of hand movements may hint at ADHD severity in children (February 15, 2011) -- Measurements of hand movement control may help determine the severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, according to two new studies. ADHD is a brain disorder characterized by impulsiveness, hyperactivity, such as not being able to sit still, and inattention or difficulty staying focused. ... > full story

Scientists develop control system to allow spacecraft to think for themselves (February 15, 2011) -- The world's first control system that will allow engineers to program satellites and spacecraft to think for themselves has been developed. ... > full story

Most stroke patients not getting clot-busting treatment in timely manner (February 15, 2011) -- Less than one-third of stroke patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) received the clot-busting drug within 60 minutes or less of their arrival. A hospital arrival-to-treatment initiation time known as "door-to-needle" of 60 minutes or less for tPA treatment is associated with lower risk of death for acute ischemic stroke patients. ... > full story

Don't blame the pill for estrogen in drinking water (February 15, 2011) -- Contrary to popular belief, birth control pills account for less than 1 percent of the estrogens found in the nation's drinking water supplies, scientists have concluded in an analysis of studies published on the topic. Their report suggests that most of the sex hormone -- source of concern as an endocrine disruptor with possible adverse effects on people and wildlife -- enters drinking water supplies from other sources. ... > full story

Stroke takes 'enormous toll' on Hollywood stars (February 15, 2011) -- Stroke and cardiovascular disease have exacted an enormous toll on Hollywood stars. Researchers investigated the frequency and impact of stroke among best actor and best actress Oscar nominees from 1927 through 2009. ... > full story

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