Selasa, 15 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Health Headlines

for Tuesday, February 15, 2011

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An early step in Parkinson's disease: Problems with mitochondria (February 15, 2011) -- For the last several years, neurologists have been probing a connection between Parkinson's disease and problems with mitochondria, the miniature power plants of the cell. Now researchers have found that a protein called MEF2D, which helps brain cells withstand stress and toxins, also plays an unexpected role inside mitochondria. MEF2D's ability to keep mitochondria well tuned appears to be especially sensitive to impairment in Parkinson's disease. ... > full story

Estrogen reduces breast cancer stem cells and aggression in breast cancer, study suggests (February 15, 2011) -- Estrogen can reduce the risk of breast cancer. Their work shows that estrogen is capable of reducing the number of breast cancer stem cells, which may explain the lower aggression of the tumor and, as a consequence, the possibility of a better prognosis. ... > full story

New anti-clotting drug added to recommendations for treating irregular heartbeat (February 15, 2011) -- A new anti-clotting drug, dabigatran, is added to recommendations for treating atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran is an alternative to the anti-clotting drug warfarin. Previous recommendations for warfarin still stand. ... > full story

Magnesium sulfate may offer protection from cerebral palsy, study suggests (February 15, 2011) -- The use of magnesium sulfate (Mg) significantly reduced the neonatal brain injury associated with maternal inflammation or maternal infection in rats. ... > full story

Few physicians refer patients to cancer clinical trials (February 15, 2011) -- A small proportion of adult cancer patients participate in clinical trials in part due to a low level of physician referrals, according to an new study. ... > full story

Preterm birth clinic attendence leads to major reduction in infant disability (February 15, 2011) -- Researchers have found that when women at high risk for preterm birth participated in a preterm birth prevention clinic, more women delivered full term babies and there were fewer cases of infant morbidity. ... > full story

Moderate-to-heavy alcohol intake may increase risk of atrial fibrillation (February 14, 2011) -- Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm). Its name comes from the fibrillating (i.e., quivering) of the heart muscles of the atria, instead of a coordinated contraction. The result is an irregular heartbeat, which may occur in episodes lasting from minutes to weeks, or it could occur all the time for years. ... > full story

Use of alcohol-free antibacterial mouth-rinse is associated with decrease in preterm birth (February 14, 2011) -- The use of non alcohol antibacterial mouth-rinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride decreases the incidence of preterm birth, a new study suggests. ... > full story

Total cooperation among people is not viable, Spanish study finds (February 14, 2011) -- A situation where a majority of people cooperate never happens. This is due to the fact that a significant number of individuals never cooperate and if they do it is in response to the decision of their neighbors to cooperate or not, or a result of their mood at the time, according to a new study by researchers in Spain. ... > full story

Not so fast: Differences in the first embryonic cell lineage decision of mammals (February 14, 2011) -- New research shows that all not mammals are created equal. In fact, this work shows that the animals most commonly used by scientists to study mammalian genetics -- mice -- develop unusually quickly and may not always be representative of embryonic development in other mammals. The study identifies significant differences in the timing of cell fate commitment during mouse and cattle embryonic development and raises important strategic implications for the generation of embryonic stem cells. ... > full story

Quest for designer bacteria uncovers a 'Spy' (February 14, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a molecular assistant called Spy that helps bacteria excel at producing proteins for medical and industrial purposes. ... > full story

Early signs of heart disease in preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes (February 14, 2011) -- Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes have a 200 percent to 400 percent greater chance of developing cardiovascular disease than those without diabetes. Researchers have now discovered that the early signs of cardiovascular disease are likely to manifest before the onset of puberty in many children with diabetes. ... > full story

Working toward automating sedation in intensive care units (February 14, 2011) -- Researchers are one step closer to their goal of automating the management of sedation in hospital intensive care units. They have developed control algorithms that use clinical data to accurately determine a patient's level of sedation and can notify medical staff if there is a change in the level. ... > full story

United Kingdom is a nation of happy couples, study finds (February 14, 2011) -- Whether you are married or cohabiting with your partner, the vast majority of couples in the UK are happy in their relationship. Initial findings show that around 90 percent of individuals who are living with a partner are happy with their relationship. ... > full story

Jumping genes: Tumor microvesicles reveal detailed genetic information (February 14, 2011) -- The same research team that first discovered tumor-associated RNA in tiny membrane-enclosed sacs released into the bloodstream by cancer cells has now found that these microvesicles also contain segments of tumor DNA, including retrotransposons -- also called "jumping genes" -- that copy and insert themselves into other areas of the genome. ... > full story

Pesticide-free method takes a bite out of mosquito-borne disease (February 14, 2011) -- Two strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are reducing mosquito population sizes or replacing populations with disease-refractory varieties. Scientists have modeled a genetic system that may be used for both, without the use of pesticides. ... > full story

Playtime helps bind generations (February 14, 2011) -- A new study has confirmed an old adage: A family that plays together stays together. Researchers examined the ways grandparents can maintain close ties with their adult grandchildren. True to the old maxim, recreation emerged as the glue sealing intergenerational bonds. ... > full story

Mummy remains show false toes helped ancient Egyptians walk (February 14, 2011) -- Two artificial big toes -- one found attached to the foot of an ancient Egyptian mummy -- may have been the world's earliest functional prosthetic body parts, says the scientist who tested replicas on volunteers. ... > full story

Offspring of female rats given folic acid supplements develop more breast cancer, study suggests (February 14, 2011) -- The daughters of rats who took folic acid supplements before conception, during pregnancy and while breastfeeding have breast cancer rates twice as high as other rats, according to a new study. ... > full story

New gene test offers personalized treatment for inherited neuromuscular disorder (February 14, 2011) -- A new genetic test will allow rapid diagnosis and earlier treatment of a debilitating neuromuscular condition. ... > full story

Trial and error: The brain learns from mistakes (February 14, 2011) -- The process of establishing a neuronal network does not always prove precise or error free. Researchers have been able to document this phenomenon using advanced microscopy techniques in the developing cerebellum, a brain area required for fine movement control. ... > full story

Clues to mystery of preterm delivery (February 14, 2011) -- Researchers have found that excessive formation of calcium crystal deposits in the amniotic fluid may be a reason why some pregnant women suffer preterm premature rupture of the membranes leading to preterm delivery. ... > full story

Partnership of genes affects the brain's development (February 14, 2011) -- The human brain consists of approximately one hundred billion nerve cells. Each of these cells needs to connect to specific other cells during the brain's development in order to form a fully functional organism. Yet how does a nerve cell know where it should grow and which cells to contact? Scientists have now shown that growing nerve cells realize when they've reached their target area in the fly brain thanks to the interaction of two genes. Similar mechanisms are also likely to play a role during the development of the vertebrate brain and could thus be important for a better understanding of certain developmental disorders. ... > full story

Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring greatly reduces infant mortality, study finds (February 14, 2011) -- In a new study, researchers have found that the use of fetal heart rate monitors lowers the rate of infant mortality. ... > full story

Thoughts of hopes, opportunities keep people from clinging to failing investments (February 14, 2011) -- It's a common problem in the business world -- throwing good money after bad. People cling to bad investments, hoping that more time, effort, and money will rescue their turkey of a project. A new study finds that changing people's mindsets can make them more likely to abandon a failing investment. ... > full story

Light shed on RNA 'on/off switches' (February 14, 2011) -- Scientists have shed new light on a molecular switch that turns genes on or off in response to a cell's energy needs. ... > full story

Severely obese women may need to gain less weight during pregnancy (February 14, 2011) -- Extremely obese women may not need to gain as much weight during pregnancy as current guidelines suggest, according to a new study. Severely obese women who gained less than the recommended amount of weight during the second and third trimester suffered no ill effects, nor did their babies. In contrast, obese and non-obese women who gained less weight had undesirable outcomes. ... > full story

You benefit if your romantic partner recovers well from spats (February 14, 2011) -- People searching for fulfilling and stable romantic relationships should look for a romantic partner who recovers from conflict well. Yes, it turns out that if your romantic partner recoups well after the two of you have a spat, you reap the benefits, according to new results. ... > full story

Heat therapy could be new treatment for parasitic skin disease (February 14, 2011) -- Scientists are hoping that heat therapy could eventually replace a complex drug regimen as the first-line treatment of a parasitic skin infection common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The researchers successfully treated the skin infection with heat therapy in two patients whose immune systems were deficient, which lowered their bodies' ability to respond to medication. Both patients have remained free of the parasitic disease, called cutaneous leishmaniasis, for more than a year since receiving the heat treatment. ... > full story

Sugar residues regulate growth and survival of nerve cells (February 14, 2011) -- Researchers have found out that certain sugar residues in the spinal cord regulate the growth and survival of nerve cells which control the movement of muscles. ... > full story

Naturally occurring brain signaling chemical may be useful in understanding Parkinson's (February 14, 2011) -- Targeting the neuroinflammatory causes of Parkinson's disease with a naturally present brain chemical signal could offer a better understanding of the clinical mechanisms of the disease and open a future therapeutic window with the knowledge that the brain's microglia -- small cells that regulate the chemical environment of neural cells -- play a role in the inflammatory process and disease progression. ... > full story

Enhance romance by going out with other couples (February 14, 2011) -- Romantic relationships often start out as enjoyable or even exciting, but sometimes may become routine and boring. A new study reveals that dating couples that integrate other couples into their social lives are more likely to have happy and satisfying romantic relationships. ... > full story

Gonorrhea acquires a piece of human DNA: First evidence of gene transfer from human host to bacterial pathogen (February 14, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered the first evidence of a fragment of human DNA in a bacterium -- in this case gonorrhea. Research showed the gene transfer appears to be a recent evolutionary event. The discovery offers insight into evolution as well as gonorrhea's ability to continually adapt and survive in its human hosts. Gonorrhea is one of the oldest recorded diseases and one of a few exclusive to humans. ... > full story

How adult stem cell therapy reduces inflammatory damage (February 14, 2011) -- A novel stem cell therapy has provided multiple benefits in preclinical models of ischemic stroke, a new study suggests. ... > full story

Stroke rehabilitation: Walking improves with home therapy just as well as treadmill training, study suggests (February 14, 2011) -- One year after having a stroke, 52 percent of people who participate in either a physical therapy program that includes a walking program using a body-weight supported treadmill or a home-based program focused on progressive strength and balance exercises experience improved functional walking ability. ... > full story

Child soldier trauma in Uganda shares similarities with Northern Ireland (February 14, 2011) -- Psychology students have discovered similarities between child soldier trauma in Uganda and those children caught up in Northern Ireland's Troubles. ... > full story

Chinks in the brain circuitry make some more vulnerable to anxiety (February 13, 2011) -- Why do some people fret over the most trivial matters while others remain calm in the face of calamity? Researchers have identified two different chinks in our brain circuitry that explain why some of us are more prone to anxiety. ... > full story

Embryonic stem cells help deliver 'good genes' in a model of inherited blood disorder (February 13, 2011) -- Researchers report a gene therapy strategy that improves the condition of a mouse model of an inherited blood disorder, beta-thalassemia. Some of the stem cell lines do not inherit the disease gene and can thus be used for transplantation-based treatments of the same mice. The findings could hold promise for a new treatment strategy for autosomal dominant diseases like certain forms of beta-thalassemia, tuberous sclerosis or Huntington's disease. ... > full story

Acute anemia linked to silent strokes in children (February 12, 2011) -- Silent strokes, which have no immediate symptoms but could cause long-term cognitive and learning deficits, occur in a significant number of severely anemic children, especially those with sickle cell disease, according to newly presented research. ... > full story

Nanoparticles may enhance circulating tumor cell detection (February 12, 2011) -- Tiny gold particles can help doctors detect tumor cells circulating in the blood of patients with head and neck cancer, researchers have found. ... > full story

Even with fetal lung maturity, babies delivered prior to 39 weeks are at risk (February 12, 2011) -- Despite fetal pulmonary maturity, babies delivered at between 36 to 38 weeks, still have a significantly increased risk of neonatal morbidities. ... > full story

Kids with ADHD much more likely to develop substance abuse problems as they age, study finds (February 12, 2011) -- Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, or ADD) are two to three times more likely than children without ADHD to later develop serious substance abuse problems in adolescence and adulthood, report psychologists. ... > full story

Firefly glow: Scientists develop a hydrogen peroxide probe based on firefly luciferin (February 12, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a probe for monitoring hydrogen peroxide levels in mice that enables them to track the progression of cancerous tumors or infectious diseases without harming the animals or even having to shave their fur. This new probe is based on luciferase, the enzyme that gives fireflies their glow. ... > full story

Compound blocks brain cell destruction in Parkinson's disease; Findings may open door to first protective therapy (February 12, 2011) -- Scientists have produced the first known compound to show significant effectiveness in protecting brain cells directly affected by Parkinson's disease, a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. ... > full story

Leptin resistance may prevent severe lung disease in patients with diabetes (February 12, 2011) -- Resistance to leptin, a protein that plays a key role in regulating metabolism and appetite, may help prevent the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) in individuals with type II diabetes, according to a study conducted by researchers in Chicago. The study indicates leptin resistance, a common characteristic of diabetes, may help prevent the formation of inflexible, fibrous tissue that develops in ALI and ARDS. ... > full story

Scientists hope to cut years off development time of new antibiotics (February 12, 2011) -- Eliminating tens of thousands of manual lab experiments, researchers are working toward a method to cut the development time of new antibiotics. A computerized modeling system they're developing will speed up the often decade-long process. Pharmacy professors and engineering professors are focusing on dosing regimens to reveal which ones are most likely to be effective in combating infection and which are not worth pursuing. ... > full story

In online dating, blacks more open to romancing whites than vice versa, study finds (February 12, 2011) -- Has Valentine's Day become post-racial? Not yet, it seems. New research suggests that when it comes to dating, cyberspace is as segregated as the real world. Data gathered from more than 1 million profiles of singles looking for love online show that whites overwhelmingly prefer to date members of their own race, while blacks, especially men, are far more likely to cross the race barrier in hopes of being struck by Cupid's arrow. ... > full story

New drug treatment possibilities for Alzheimer's (February 11, 2011) -- Scientists have made a discovery that has the potential for use in the early diagnosis and eventual treatment of plaque-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. ... > full story

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