Senin, 14 Februari 2011

ScienceDaily Environment Headlines

for Monday, February 14, 2011

Welcome to another edition of ScienceDaily's email newsletter. You can change your subscription options or unsubscribe at any time.

Pesky bacterial slime reveals its survival secrets (February 14, 2011) -- By rethinking what happens on the surface of things, engineers have discovered that Bacillus subtilis biofilm colonies exhibit an unmatched ability to repel a wide range of liquids -- and even vapors. ... > full story

Heat therapy could be new treatment for parasitic skin disease (February 14, 2011) -- Scientists are hoping that heat therapy could eventually replace a complex drug regimen as the first-line treatment of a parasitic skin infection common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The researchers successfully treated the skin infection with heat therapy in two patients whose immune systems were deficient, which lowered their bodies' ability to respond to medication. Both patients have remained free of the parasitic disease, called cutaneous leishmaniasis, for more than a year since receiving the heat treatment. ... > full story

Sugar residues regulate growth and survival of nerve cells (February 14, 2011) -- Researchers have found out that certain sugar residues in the spinal cord regulate the growth and survival of nerve cells which control the movement of muscles. ... > full story

Airborne sensor to study 'rivers in the sky' (February 14, 2011) -- They're called atmospheric rivers -- narrow regions in Earth's atmosphere that transport enormous amounts of water vapor across the Pacific or other regions. Aptly nicknamed "rivers in the sky," they can transport enough water vapor in one day, on average, to flood an area the size of Maryland 0.3 meters (1 foot) deep, or about seven times the average daily flow of water from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The phenomenon was the subject of a recent major emergency preparedness scenario led by the U.S. Geological Survey, "ARkStorm," which focused on the possibility of a series of strong atmospheric rivers striking California -- a scenario of flooding, wind and mudslides the USGS said could cause damages exceeding those of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. ... > full story

Gonorrhea acquires a piece of human DNA: First evidence of gene transfer from human host to bacterial pathogen (February 14, 2011) -- Researchers have discovered the first evidence of a fragment of human DNA in a bacterium -- in this case gonorrhea. Research showed the gene transfer appears to be a recent evolutionary event. The discovery offers insight into evolution as well as gonorrhea's ability to continually adapt and survive in its human hosts. Gonorrhea is one of the oldest recorded diseases and one of a few exclusive to humans. ... > full story

Arctic climate variation under ancient greenhouse conditions (February 14, 2011) -- Tiny organisms preserved in marine sediments hold clues about Arctic climate variation during an ancient episode of greenhouse warming. ... > full story

Mysterious Voynich manuscript dates back to early 15th century, researchers find (February 13, 2011) -- The Voynich manuscript is one of the most mysterious writings ever found -- penned by an unknown author in a language no one understands. While enthusiasts across the world pored over the strange manuscript, a research team solved one of its biggest mysteries: When was the book made? ... > full story

'Hot-bunking' bacterium recycles iron to boost ocean metabolism (February 13, 2011) -- In the vast ocean where an essential nutrient -- iron -- is scarce, a marine bacterium that launches the ocean food web survives by using a remarkable biochemical trick: it recycles iron. ... > full story

Valentine's Day roses bought in UK could 'bleed Lake Naivasha dry,' warns ecologist (February 13, 2011) -- An ecologist who has spent over 30 years researching wetland conservation at Lake Naivasha in Kenya has warned that the country is being "bled dry" by the UK's demand for fresh flowers. He called on UK supermarkets to show more concern about the health of the natural environment that the flowers come from. ... > full story

Mystery of how fleas jump resolved after 44 years (February 12, 2011) -- New research sheds light on how fleas jump, reaching speeds as fast as 1.9 meters per second. Using high-speed recording equipment and sophisticated mathematical models, scientists were able to prove that fleas use their toes to push off and propel themselves into the air, resolving the 44-year-old mystery. ... > full story

3-D digital dinosaur track download: A roadmap for saving at-risk natural history resources (February 12, 2011) -- Portable laser scanning technology allows researchers to tote a fossil discovery from field to lab in the form of digital data on a laptop. But standard formats to ensure data accessibility of these "digitypes" are needed, say paleontologists. They field-scanned a Texas dinosaur track, then back at the lab created an exact 3-D facsimile to scale. ... > full story

Firefly glow: Scientists develop a hydrogen peroxide probe based on firefly luciferin (February 12, 2011) -- Scientists have developed a probe for monitoring hydrogen peroxide levels in mice that enables them to track the progression of cancerous tumors or infectious diseases without harming the animals or even having to shave their fur. This new probe is based on luciferase, the enzyme that gives fireflies their glow. ... > full story

Scientists hope to cut years off development time of new antibiotics (February 12, 2011) -- Eliminating tens of thousands of manual lab experiments, researchers are working toward a method to cut the development time of new antibiotics. A computerized modeling system they're developing will speed up the often decade-long process. Pharmacy professors and engineering professors are focusing on dosing regimens to reveal which ones are most likely to be effective in combating infection and which are not worth pursuing. ... > full story

New way to attack pathogens: RNA recycling system gone awry brings MRSA to a halt (February 11, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a new way to attack dangerous pathogens, marking a hopeful next step in the ever-escalating battle between man and microbe. By stopping bacteria's ability to degrade RNA -- a "housekeeping" process crucial to their ability to thrive -- scientists were able to stop methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA both in the laboratory and in infected mice. The approach shows promise against the most severe strains of the bacteria as well as MRSA biofilms. ... > full story

Livestock boom risks aggravating animal 'plagues,' poses threat to food security and world's poor (February 11, 2011) -- Increasing numbers of domestic livestock and more resource-intensive production methods are encouraging animal epidemics around the world, a problem that is particularly acute in developing countries, where livestock diseases present a growing threat to the food security of already vulnerable populations, according to new assessments. ... > full story

Quest for extinct giant rats leads scientists to ancient face carvings (February 11, 2011) -- Ancient stone faces carved into the walls of a well-known limestone cave in East Timor have been discovered by a team searching for fossils of extinct giant rats. ... > full story

Identifying large hurricanes through seismology (February 11, 2011) -- Storm-generated seismic signals may allow seismologists to detect large hurricanes at sea and track their intensity, adding useful data to the discussion of whether anthropogenic global warming has increased the frequency and intensity of hurricanes and tropical storms, including ones that don't reach land. ... > full story

New view of human evolution? 3.2 million-year-old fossil foot bone supports humanlike bipedalism in Lucy's species (February 11, 2011) -- A fossilized foot bone recovered from Hadar, Ethiopia, shows that by 3.2 million years ago human ancestors walked bipedally with a modern human-like foot. These findings support the hypothesis that A. afarensis was primarily an upright walker, as opposed to a more versatile creature that also moved through the trees. ... > full story

New hybrid drug, derived from common spice, may protect, rebuild brain cells after stroke (February 11, 2011) -- Whether or not you're fond of Indian, Southeast Asian and Middle Eastern food, stroke researchers think you may become a fan of one of their key spices. The scientists created a new molecule from curcumin, a chemical component of the golden-colored spice turmeric, and found in laboratory experiments that it affects mechanisms that protect and help regenerate brain cells after stroke. ... > full story

LED products billed as eco-friendly contain toxic metals, study finds (February 11, 2011) -- Those light-emitting diodes marketed as safe, environmentally preferable alternatives to traditional light bulbs actually contain lead, arsenic and a dozen other potentially hazardous substances, according to new research. ... > full story

Virus, parasite may combine to increase harm to humans (February 11, 2011) -- A parasite and a virus may be teaming up in a way that increases the parasite's ability to harm humans, scientists have discovered. When the parasite Leishmania infects a human, immune system cells known as macrophages respond. However, some Leishmania strains are infected with a virus that can trigger a severe response in macrophages, allowing the parasite to do more harm in animal infections. ... > full story

Biologists unlock chemical clues to courtship in swordtail fish urine (February 11, 2011) -- When you've got to go, you've got to go -- upstream, that is, if you are a male swordtail fish seeking a mate, according to new research. ... > full story

Newly discovered squid pheromone sparks extreme aggression on contact (February 11, 2011) -- Scientists have identified a pheromone produced by female squid that triggers immediate and dramatic fighting in male squid that come into contact with it. The aggression-producing pheromone, believed to be the first of its kind discovered in any marine animal, belongs to a family of proteins found in vertebrates, including humans. ... > full story

Circulating blood antibodies are not required for HIV protection, study suggests (February 11, 2011) -- A vaccine which stimulates production of specific anti-HIV antibodies in the vaginal tissue was sufficient to protect monkeys from exposure to live virus, according to a new study. The results may also help to explain why a few individuals who lack anti-HIV antibodies in the blood are able to resist infection, even when they are repeatedly exposed to HIV. ... > full story

Pollution controls used during China Olympics could save lives if continued, study concludes (February 11, 2011) -- The air pollution control measures that were put in place in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games -- if continued -- would cut almost in half the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the area's residents from certain inhaled pollutants, a new study concludes. ... > full story

Vietnam’s biodiversity has deep roots in Earth’s past (February 11, 2011) -- Southeast Asia is a global biodiversity hotspot with a very high number of animal and plant species, many of which are only found there. Despite its highly endangered terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, Vietnam makes a significant contribution to this biological diversity. Scientists now demonstrate for the first time that North Vietnam was already a hotspot of biodiversity about 30 million years ago. ... > full story

New method for reporting solar data (February 11, 2011) -- A straightforward new way to calculate, compile, and graphically present solar radiation measurements in a format that is accessible to decision makers and the general public has been developed. ... > full story

Los Angeles Basin long overdue for major earthquake: Lake-effect theory sinks, but quake timing questions go on (February 10, 2011) -- A chronology of 1,000 years of earthquakes at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault nixes the idea that lake changes in the now-dry region caused past quakes. However, researchers say, the timeline pulled from sediment in three deep trenches confirms that this portion of the fault is long past the expected time for a major temblor that would strongly shake the Los Angeles Basin. ... > full story

Success of male bustards is measured by their 'beards' (February 10, 2011) -- Up until now it was unknown whether males of the great bustard (Otis tarda), an emblematic bird in Spain and endangered at a global level, transmit information on their weight, size, and age through their plumage. For the first time a study shows that the 'beards' and the design of the neck are "reliable" indicators of the weight and age of their bearers, and are used to both avoid fights with competitors and to attract females. Published on 'Ethology' ... > full story

Plant's immune defense revs up for the morning attack (February 10, 2011) -- Timing is everything in the long-standing arms race between the flowering plant Arabidopsis and Hyaloperonospora, a downy mildew pathogen. Researchers have found that the little mustard plant cranks up its immune system in the morning to prepare for the greatest onslaught of infectious spores released by the mildew. ... > full story

Weather extremes are growing trend in Northern Australia, corals show (February 10, 2011) -- The extreme rain events that have caused flooding across northern Australia may become an increasingly familiar occurrence, new research suggests. The study uses the growth patterns in near-shore corals to determine which summers brought more rain than others, creating a centuries-long rainfall record for northern Australia. ... > full story

Newly discovered deep sea lobster (February 10, 2011) -- Scientists have discovered a rare new genus of deep water lobster. The lobster has movable, well-developed eyestalks and an inverted T-plate in front of its mouth. But its most striking feature is a mighty claw with a short, bulbous palm and extremely long, spiny fingers for capturing prey. ... > full story

Simple marine worms distantly related to humans (February 10, 2011) -- Two groups of lowly marine worms are related to complex species including vertebrates (such as humans) and starfish, according to new research. Previously thought to be an evolutionary link between simple animals such as jellyfish and the rest of animal life -- the worms' surprising promotion implies that they have not always been as simple as they now appear. ... > full story

Rowdy residents warn crustaceans away from perilous reefs (February 10, 2011) -- Coral reefs present a treacherous wall of mouths to flea-sized planktonic crustaceans, but the clamor generated by animals on the reef may act like a foghorn to warn them away from danger. ... > full story

Diet soda may raise odds of vascular events; Salt linked to stroke risk (February 10, 2011) -- Drinking diet soda daily is linked to a higher risk of stroke, heart attack and vascular-related deaths, according to new research. High salt intake may double the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of sodium's role in hypertension. ... > full story

Race against time to find Apollo 14's lost voyagers: 'Moon trees' (February 10, 2011) -- In communities all across the US, travelers that went to the moon and back with the Apollo 14 mission are living out their quiet lives. The voyagers in question are not astronauts. They're "moon trees." ... > full story

Chocolate is a 'super fruit': Rich source of antioxidants (February 10, 2011) -- It is widely known that fruit contains antioxidants which may be beneficial to health. New research demonstrates that chocolate is a rich source of antioxidants and contains more polyphenols and flavanols than fruit juice. ... > full story

New method takes snapshots of proteins as they fold (February 10, 2011) -- Using a sophisticated version of the stroboscopic photography Eadweard Muybridge used to prove in 1877 that a horse takes all four hooves off the ground when it gallops, scientists have now caught proteins in the act of folding, a process that can take less than thousandths of a second. ... > full story

Single-cell marine predator's unique survival mechanisms revealed (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers have uncovered the unique survival mechanisms of a marine organism that may be tiny, but in some ways has surpassed sharks in its predatory efficiency. ... > full story

Understanding patterns of seafloor biomass (February 10, 2011) -- Analysis of a comprehensive database has revealed strong links between biological productivity in the surface oceans and patterns of biomass and abundance at the seafloor, helping to explain large regional differences. ... > full story

Taurus XL ready to launch Glory spacecraft (February 10, 2011) -- The Glory spacecraft and its Taurus XL launch vehicle are coming together at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California as NASA gets ready to launch its first Launch Services Program mission of 2011. Researchers are looking for more puzzle pieces to fill out the picture of Earth's climate and Glory was designed to give them the pieces relating to the role tiny particles known as aerosols play in the planet's weather. The spacecraft, about the size of a refrigerator, is also equipped with an instrument to measure the sun's impact on Earth's conditions. Glory is to lift off Feb. 23 at 5:09 a.m. EST. ... > full story

New solar cell self-repairs like natural plant systems (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers are creating a new type of solar cell designed to self-repair like natural photosynthetic systems in plants by using carbon nanotubes and DNA, an approach aimed at increasing service life and reducing cost. ... > full story

Invasive comb jellyfish pose no direct threat to Baltic cod eggs and larvae, Danish study finds (February 10, 2011) -- The direct threat from the killer warty comb jellyfish to the Baltic cod population has been shown not to be so serious after all, according to new research from Denmark. Even though the invasive killer jelly feeds constantly, cod eggs seem not to be on the menu. In fact, if they accidentally swallow an egg, they even throw it up again. ... > full story

Foot bone suggests Lucy's kin had arched foot, for walking (February 10, 2011) -- Researchers have found proof that arches existed in a predecessor to the human species that lived more than 3 million years ago. This discovery could change scientists' views of human evolution. ... > full story

Soil science: Healing our planet's ills from the ground up (February 9, 2011) -- Soil depletion hastened the collapse of at least one society, the Greeks, and contributed to economic hardship as recently as the last century in the Great Plains of the United States. With climate change and population growth affecting the services provided by soil, a team of scientists say more attention should be paid to protecting and rejuvenating soil. Strategies for doing so include refocusing and boosting research, and communicating its importance to the public. ... > full story

Microsponges from seaweed may save lives (February 9, 2011) -- Microsponges derived from seaweed may help diagnose heart disease, cancers, HIV and other diseases quickly and at far lower cost than current clinical methods. ... > full story

Stockpiled avian flu vaccine could protect against potential pandemic (February 9, 2011) -- A stockpiled vaccine designed to fight a strain of avian flu that circulated in 2004 can be combined with a vaccine that matches the current strain of bird flu to protect against a potential pandemic, researchers have found. The findings suggest public health officials can get a jump on fighting a pandemic caused by avian flu virus because they won't have to wait for a vaccine that exactly matches the current strain of bird flu to be manufactured. ... > full story

Western Australia's incredible underground orchid (February 9, 2011) -- Rhizanthella gardneri is a cute, quirky and critically endangered orchid that lives all its life underground. It even blooms underground, making it virtually unique amongst plants. Last year, using radioactive tracers, scientists showed that the orchid gets all its nutrients by parasitizing fungi associated with the roots of broom bush, a woody shrub of the Western Australia outback. Now, with less than 50 individuals left in the wild, scientists have made a timely and remarkable discovery about its genome. ... > full story

Copyright 1995-2010 © ScienceDaily LLC. All rights reserved. Terms of use.

This message was sent to from:

ScienceDaily | 1 Research Court, Suite 450 | Rockville, MD 20850

Email Marketing by iContact - Try It Free!

Update Profile  |  Forward To a Friend