Selasa, 12 Oktober 2010

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for Tuesday, October 12, 2010

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Global carbon cycle: Tiny creatures may play a crucial role in mixing ocean nutrients (October 12, 2010) -- Studies of microscopic swimming creatures show that the fluid flow they produce is much more complex than previously believed, and leads to large scale stirring of oceans and lakes that could affect the global carbon cycle. ... > full story

Is infertility more common in women with epilepsy? (October 12, 2010) -- Women with epilepsy may be more likely to experience infertility, according to new research. The study of women in India found that women with epilepsy experienced infertility at more than twice the rate of that found in the general population. The research also found that women who were taking multiple epilepsy drugs were more likely to be infertile than those taking fewer drugs or no drugs for epilepsy. ... > full story

On the trail of the epigenetic code: Test system on Drosophila should provide the key to histone function (October 12, 2010) -- Test system on fruit flies should provide the key to histone function. The genetic inherited material DNA was long viewed as the sole bearer of hereditary information. The function of its packaging proteins, the histones, was believed to be exclusively structural. Additional genetic information can be stored, however, and passed on to subsequent generations through chemical changes in the DNA or histones. Scientists have succeeded in creating an experimental system for testing the function of such chemical histone modifications and their influence on the organism. ... > full story

So that’s why we’re allergic to sun creams (October 12, 2010) -- What happens to sunscreens when they are exposed to sunlight? And how is the skin affected by the degradation products that form? This has been the subject of recent research in Sweden. ... > full story

Ultra-precise optical systems for space (October 12, 2010) -- Metal mirrors made with extremely high precision and exactly positioned are the key elements of modern telescopes. A new production technique enables complex optical surfaces to be manufactured with excellent trueness of shape and hitherto unattained positional accuracy. The mirrors have been built for an infrared sounder telescope. ... > full story

Invisible world teeming with microscopic algae revealed (October 12, 2010) -- It just got easier to pinpoint biological hot spots in the world's oceans where some inhabitants are smaller than, well, a pinpoint. Tiny as they may be, communities of the phytoplankton south of Vancouver Island are big players when it comes to carbon: They take up 50 percent of the carbon dioxide going from the atmosphere into the oceans there. ... > full story

Insulin resistance may be associated with stroke risk (October 12, 2010) -- Insulin resistance, a condition in which insulin produced by the body becomes less effective in reducing blood glucose levels, appears to be associated with an increased risk of stroke in individuals without diabetes, according to a new study. ... > full story

In elevated carbon dioxide, soybeans stumble but invasive cheatgrass keeps on truckin' (October 12, 2010) -- Scientists once thought the fertilization effect of rising carbon dioxide concentrations would offset factors such as higher temperatures or drier soils that would reduce crops yields. This view is turning out to be overly optimistic. A new study shows that soybeans switch into unproductive metabolic activity at higher carbon dioxide concentrations. The invasive cheatgrass, on the other hand, has no switch, or control, and continues to efficiently transport water and assimilate carbon. ... > full story

Meta-analysis shows no heart benefits for folic acid supplements (October 12, 2010) -- Use of folic acid supplements appears to lower blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine -- theorized to be a risk factor for heart and blood vessel disease -- but does not appear to be associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular events, cancer or death over a five-year period, according to a meta-analysis of previously published studies. ... > full story

Car manufacturers can get vehicles to market more quickly using new simulation model (October 12, 2010) -- A new simulation model is set to significantly reduce the time and costs required to calibrate a new engine, enabling car manufacturers to get new vehicles to market much more quickly. ... > full story

Research reveals likely housing winners and losers (October 12, 2010) -- There is a great deal of uncertainty and speculation about the direction of the housing market in the UK and the USA -- both for home-owners and renters. Researchers have devised a mathematical model to provide some foresight into changes into the housing market. The model could be beneficial to central banks and ministries of finance that have an interest in the effects of the housing market on their economies. ... > full story

How voracious comb jellyfish makes itself 'invisible' to prey (October 11, 2010) -- Despite its primitive structure, the North American comb jellyfish can sneak up on its prey like a high-tech stealth submarine, making it a successful predator. Researchers have now been able to show how the jellyfish makes itself hydrodynamically 'invisible'. ... > full story

Fittest hepatitis C viruses infect transplanted livers (October 11, 2010) -- Not all viruses are created equal. In liver transplant patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, only viruses that can dodge the immune response invade the new liver, according to a new study. ... > full story

Super lasers: Raman amplification compressed laser pulses 1000 times shorter, 300 times more intense (October 11, 2010) -- More brilliant X-rays, more cost-effective methods for developing new energy sources and advanced manufacturing processes are just some of the benefits which may come from a novel technology. ... > full story

New findings on autoimmune diseases (October 11, 2010) -- A deficiency in one of the immune system’s enzymes affects the severity of autoimmune diseases such as MS, and explains why the course of these diseases can vary so much. New findings give an insight into how this enzyme deficiency can be diagnosed, and could lead to new medicines, reveals new research from Sweden. ... > full story

NASA partnership sends earth science data to Africa (October 11, 2010) -- A unique partnership between NASA and agencies in Africa and Europe has sent more than 30 terabytes of free Earth science satellite data to South African researchers to support sustainable development and environmental applications in Africa. ... > full story

When in Rome: Study-abroad students increase alcohol intake, study finds (October 11, 2010) -- For most American students, spending a semester or two studying in a foreign country means the opportunity to improve foreign language skills and become immersed in a different culture. For others, studying abroad is more like a prolonged spring break. In a new study, researchers report that American study abroad students doubled how much they drank while they were away. ... > full story

New understanding of bizarre extinct mammal: Shares common ancestor with rodents, primates (October 11, 2010) -- Researchers presenting new fossil evidence of an exceptionally well-preserved 55-million-year-old North American mammal have found it shares a common ancestor with rodents and primates, including humans. ... > full story

Study links male Y chromosome variants with the risk of coronary heart disease (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists in the UK have shown that genetic variations in the Y chromosome affect a male's risk of coronary heart disease. ... > full story

Study details structure of potential target for HIV and cancer drugs (October 11, 2010) -- In a technical tour de force, structural biologists have determined the three-dimensional structure of a molecule involved in HIV infection and in many forms of cancer. The high-resolution structure sheds light on how the molecule functions and could point to ways to control its activity, potentially locking out HIV and stalling cancer's spread. ... > full story

Three-way control of fetal heart-cell proliferation could help regenerate cardiac cells (October 11, 2010) -- Heart muscle cells do not normally replicate in adult tissue, but multiply with abandoned during development. This is why the loss of heart muscle after a heart attack is so dire -- you can't grow enough new heart muscle to make up for the loss. Researchers describe the interconnections between three-molecules that control fetal, heart-muscle-cell proliferation in a mouse model that will help cardiologists better understand the natural repair process after heart attacks. ... > full story

Using buildings for flood protection (October 11, 2010) -- Buildings, car parks and roads could, alongside their 'regular' functions, have a role to play in protecting the rest of the city from flooding. This concept could be very useful for the Dutch cities along the River Rhine, for example. ... > full story

Family therapy for anorexia twice as effective as individual therapy, researchers find (October 11, 2010) -- Family-based therapy, in which parents of adolescents with anorexia nervosa are enlisted to interrupt their children's disordered behaviors, is twice as effective as individual psychotherapy at producing full remission of the disease, new research shows. ... > full story

Huge parts of world are drying up: Land 'evapotranspiration' taking unexpected turn (October 11, 2010) -- The soils in large areas of the Southern Hemisphere, including major portions of Australia, Africa and South America, have been drying up in the past decade, a group of researchers conclude in the first major study to ever examine "evapotranspiration" on a global basis. ... > full story

Genetics of obesity and fat distribution: Apple and pear shapes partly due to genes (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists have made significant inroads into uncovering the genetic basis of obesity by identifying 18 new gene sites associated with overall obesity and 13 that affect fat distribution. The studies include data from nearly a quarter of a million participants, the largest genetic investigation of human traits to date. ... > full story

New method to identify people by their ears (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists working on biometrics in the UK have found a way to identify ears with a success rate of almost 100 percent. ... > full story

High risk of acute mountain sickness on Mount Kilimanjaro (October 11, 2010) -- Climbers of high peaks such as Mount Kilimanjaro are at high risk for acute mountain sickness (AMS). Trekkers should not ignore AMS warning signs, which can progress to more serious medical outcomes. Mountain climbers can best minimize their risk for altitude sickness by becoming acclimatized to increased altitudes before an ascent, according to a new study. ... > full story

Efficient, inexpensive plastic solar cells coming soon (October 11, 2010) -- Physicists have discovered new properties in a material that could result in efficient and inexpensive plastic solar cells. The discovery reveals that excitons, or energy-carrying particles generated by photons, can travel on the order of a thousand times farther in organic semiconductors than scientists previously observed. This boosts scientists' hopes that organic solar cells may one day overtake silicon in cost and performance. ... > full story

Competing motivational brain responses predict costly helping (October 11, 2010) -- A new study reveals that brain signals elicited by the sight of someone suffering pain differ as a function of whether we identify positively or negatively with that person and that these differential brain signals predict a later decision to help or withdraw from helping. ... > full story

New mongoose-like carnivorous mammal discovered in Madagascar (October 11, 2010) -- A new species of small carnivore, known as Durrell's vontsira (Salanoia durrelli) has been identified by researchers. The small, cat-sized, speckled brown carnivore from the marshes of the Lac Alaotra wetlands in central eastern Madagascar weighs just over half a kilogramme and belongs to a family of carnivores only known from Madagascar. It is likely to be one of the most threatened carnivores in the world. ... > full story

Oral delivery system to treat inflammatory bowel diseases developed (October 11, 2010) -- Researchers have developed a novel approach for delivering small bits of genetic material into the body to improve the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. The researchers encapsulated short pieces of RNA into engineered particles called thioketal nanoparticles and orally delivered the genetic material directly to the inflamed intestines of animals. ... > full story

Neptune could not have knocked planetoids in Cold Classical Kuiper Belt to edge of solar system (October 11, 2010) -- New research is challenging popular theory about how part of our solar system formed. Contrary to popular belief, new evidence suggests the planet Neptune can't have knocked a collection of planetoids known as the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt to its current location at the edge of the solar system. ... > full story

'Obese' BMI does not harm current health of young adults, study says (October 11, 2010) -- A study examining the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and illness suggests that a BMI of 30 or above, a signal of obesity according to federal health standards, does not translate into current illness among adults under age 40. In addition, researchers found that across all age groups studied, from 25 to 70 years, there was little difference in the current health status in normal-weight vs. overweight people based on the medications they took. ... > full story

Better synchronization helps fish deal with predator threat (October 11, 2010) -- Fish alter their movements when under threat from predators to keep closer together and to help them to blend into the crowd, according to new research. Scientists used a combined computer simulation and experimental study of group behavior to discover that shoaling fish coordinate their movements more frequently when under threat. ... > full story

Obese workers cost workplace more than insurance, absenteeism, according to new study (October 11, 2010) -- The cost of obesity among US full-time employees is estimated to be .1 billion, according to a new study. ... > full story

How the deaf have super vision: Cat study points to brain reorganization (October 11, 2010) -- Deaf or blind people often report enhanced abilities in their remaining senses, but up until now, no one has explained how that could be. Researchers have now discovered there is a causal link between enhanced visual abilities and reorganization of the part of the brain that usually handles auditory input. ... > full story

Cancer-linked epigenetic effects of smoking found (October 11, 2010) -- For the first time, scientists have reported direct evidence that taking up smoking results in epigenetic changes associated with the development of cancer. ... > full story

The secret of the 'Unicorn' revealed (October 11, 2010) -- A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. ... > full story

Rare hybrid cell key to regulating the immune system (October 11, 2010) -- A cell small in number but powerful in its ability to switch the immune system on or off is a unique hybrid of two well-known immune cell types, researchers report. The discovery of this rare hybrid could have implications for the efficacy of new therapies that manipulate these two cell types to treat diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. ... > full story

How marine animals survive stress: Findings indicate how wildlife responds to environmental and ecological disasters (October 11, 2010) -- Research of how Galapagos marine iguanas respond to El Niño could provide insight into how wildlife in the Gulf of Mexico will respond to the current oil spill. In emergencies, animals secrete corticosterone to help them cope. However, prolonged hormone production can also be lethal. ... > full story

Carbohydrate claims can mislead consumers, study finds (October 11, 2010) -- Food manufacturers advertise a variety of foods on grocery store shelves by using nutrient claims on the front of packaging. New research evaluates how consumers are interpreting certain carbohydrate-related content claims and the effects of claims on consumer perceptions of food products. Findings from the study reveal that consumers misinterpret low carbohydrate claims to have health benefits and weight loss qualities beyond their nutrition facts. ... > full story

Tsunami risk higher in Los Angeles, other major cities than thought, Haiti study suggests (October 11, 2010) -- Geologists studying the Jan. 12 Haiti earthquake say the risk of destructive tsunamis is higher than expected in places such as Kingston, Istanbul, and Los Angeles. This latest research suggests even a moderate earthquake on a strike-slip fault can generate tsunamis through submarine landslides, raising the overall tsunami risk in these places. ... > full story

Conventional theory of modern drug design challenged (October 11, 2010) -- Scientists have uncovered new evidence that challenges the current theory about a process key to the way modern drugs are designed and how they work in the human body. ... > full story

Artificial white light becomes eye-friendly (October 11, 2010) -- A new class of organic substances emits white light with continuous spectrum. This achievement provides experimental evidence that only single component luminophore will be necessary to construct eye-friendly light sources and displays. ... > full story

Fragrance exposure: New discovery on the causes of contact allergy (October 11, 2010) -- The fragrances used in many household and skincare products can cause contact allergy when exposed to oxygen in the air, new research from Sweden reveals. ... > full story

Intracellular express: Why transport protein molecules have brakes (October 11, 2010) -- Through single-molecule biomechanical experiments, researchers have revealed in unprecedented detail how an intracellular express delivery service works, and why it is so efficient. With tools including optical tweezers, they manipulated a special type of kinesins, transport proteins that "walk" along intracellular fibers carrying vital substances. They found that of the molecule's two "legs" -- made of two different protein chains -- one puts the brakes on its uninhibited partner when there's no cargo attached. ... > full story

Combining medication and psychosocial treatments may benefit patients with early-stage schizophrenia (October 11, 2010) -- Patients with early-stage schizophrenia who receive a combination of medication and a psychosocial intervention appear less likely to discontinue treatment or relapse -- and may have improved insight, quality of life and social functioning -- than those taking medication alone, according to a new article. ... > full story

Breakthrough e-display means electronics with high speed, high readability and low power usage (October 11, 2010) -- Until today, electronic devices could never have it all: high readability in bright sunlight and the ability to display high-speed content -- then hold that image indefinitely with absolutely zero electrical power usage. A new e-Display design changes that picture. ... > full story

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