Selasa, 23 November 2010

ScienceDaily Top Science Headlines

for Tuesday, November 23, 2010

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Cloud study predicts more global warming (November 23, 2010) -- Global climate models disagree widely in the magnitude of the warming we can expect with increasing carbon dioxide. This is mainly because the models represent clouds differently. A new modeling approach successfully simulates the observed cloud fields in a key region for climate. The study finds a greater tendency for clouds to thin with global warming than in any of the current climate models. This means the expected warming may be greater than currently anticipated. ... > full story

HIV drugs interfere with blood sugar, lead to insulin resistance (November 23, 2010) -- The same powerful drugs that have extended the lives of countless people with HIV come with a price -- insulin resistance that can lead to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Now, researchers have determined why that happens. ... > full story

Flexible wings driven by simple oscillation may be viable for efficient micro air vehicles (November 23, 2010) -- To avoid some of the design challenges involved in creating micro-scale air vehicles that mimic the flapping of winged insects or birds, researchers propose using flexible wings that are driven by a simple sinusoidal flapping motion. ... > full story

Divide and conquer strategy for childhood brain cancer (November 23, 2010) -- Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumors of childhood, with 40 to 50 percent overall mortality. One of the greatest challenges in treating them is that they vary substantially from patient to patient. In the largest genomic study of human medulloblastomas to date, researchers have identified six subtypes with distinct molecular "fingerprints" that will improve doctors' ability to direct and individualize treatment. ... > full story

'M8' earthquake simulation breaks computational records, promises better quake models (November 23, 2010) -- Researchers have developed the world's most advanced earthquake shaking simulation. The "M8" simulation represents how a magnitude 8.0 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault will shake a larger area, in greater detail, than previously possible, and advances the state-of-the-art in terms of the speed and efficiency at which such calculations can be performed. ... > full story

Exercising to piano music appears to help reduce falls among older adults (November 23, 2010) -- Introducing a music-based multitask exercise program for community-dwelling elderly people may lead to improved gait (manner or style of walking), balance and a reduction in the rate of falling, according new research. ... > full story

Lifeblood of leaves: Vein networks control plant patterns (November 23, 2010) -- New research may have solved the mystery of how leaf vein patterns correlate with use of sunlight, carbon and other nutrients. This knowledge could help scientists better understand the complex carbon cycle that is at the heart of global climate warming. ... > full story

How sunlight shapes daily rhythms (November 23, 2010) -- Fresh insight into how biological clocks adjust to having less sunlight in the winter could help us better understand the impact of jet lag and shift work. ... > full story

Uptake protein acts as zinc's doorway to the cell (November 23, 2010) -- A new study details how zinc, an element fundamental to cell growth, enters the cell via zinc-specific uptake proteins. ... > full story

New function of gene in promoting cancer found (November 23, 2010) -- Researchers have discovered that a gene well known for its involvement in tumor cell development, growth and metastasis also protects cancer cells from being destroyed by chemotherapy. ... > full story

Cost effectiveness of ecological restoration demonstrated (November 23, 2010) -- New research provides evidence that ecological restoration can provide a cost effective response to environmental degradation. The research focused on the dryland forests of Latin America, and examined the cost effectiveness of ecological restoration techniques such as tree planting and forest regeneration. This was achieved using a novel research approach, which involved mapping the value of different benefits provided by these forests. ... > full story

Overweight primarily a problem among wealthier women in low- to middle-income countries (November 23, 2010) -- A new study finds that high body mass index (BMI) in developing countries remains primarily a problem of the rich. ... > full story

Researchers kick-start ancient DNA (November 22, 2010) -- Researchers recently revived ancient bacteria trapped for thousands of years in water droplets embedded in salt crystals. ... > full story

Normal cells transformed into 3-D cancers in tissue culture dishes (November 22, 2010) -- Researchers have successfully transformed normal human tissue into three-dimensional cancers in a tissue culture dish for the first time. Watching how the cells behave as they divide and invade surrounding tissue will help physicians better understand how human cancers act in the body. The new technique also provides a way to quickly and cheaply test anti-cancer drugs without requiring laboratory animals. ... > full story

Students fly in zero gravity to protect satellites from tiny meteoroids (November 22, 2010) -- Researchers have completed the first successful tests in zero gravity of a canopy for CubeSats -- the tiny satellites that hitch rides on rockets sending larger satellites into orbit. The goal is gathering data on what happens when micrometeoroids slam into satellites. Such impacts often knock out electronic equipment on satellites. The encounters are poorly understood, but canopies could be a first step in eventually building "black boxes" for satellites similar to airplane flight recorders. ... > full story

Aggressive surgery is best for children with brain tumors, study suggests (November 22, 2010) -- A new study found that children with low-grade brain tumors (gliomas) who undergo aggressive surgery to completely remove the tumor have an increased chance of overall survival. ... > full story

NASA's Stardust spacecraft burns for another comet flyby (November 22, 2010) -- Eighty-six days out from its appointment with a comet, NASA's Stardust spacecraft fired its thrusters to help refine its flight path. The Stardust-NExT mission will fly past comet Tempel 1 next Valentine's Day (Feb. 14, 2011). It will perform NASA's second comet flyby within four months. ... > full story

Banking on predictability, the mind increases efficiency (November 22, 2010) -- Listeners can become effectively deaf to sounds that do not conform to their brains' expectations. Like musical compression saves space on your mp3 player, the human brain has ways of recoding sounds to save precious processing power. ... > full story

Electrowetting breakthrough may lead to disposable e-Readers fast enough for video (November 22, 2010) -- A new discovery could revolutionize display technology with e-paper that's fast enough for video yet cheap enough to be disposable. ... > full story

Genes link puberty timing to body fat in women (November 22, 2010) -- Scientists have discovered 30 new genes that control the age of sexual maturation in women. Notably, many of these genes also act on body weight regulation or biological pathways related to fat metabolism. Puberty in women normally occurs between 11 and 14 years of age. If a girl reaches a particular weight (around 100 lb (45 kg)), the onset of puberty is triggered. The heavier the child, the earlier puberty occurs, possibly affecting risk of later disease. ... > full story

Both the rate and direction of axon growth in the spinal cord can be controlled (November 22, 2010) -- Both the rate and direction of axon growth in the spinal cord can be controlled, according to new research. ... > full story

Putting the squeeze on fat cells (November 22, 2010) -- Scientists are researching the theory that fat cells, like bone or muscle cells, are influenced by mechanical loads. By recreating the structure of fat cells using a newly developed computer method, researchers can determine how much mechanical load can be tolerated by fat cells, and at what point the cells will begin to disintegrate. The research has direct applications in weight loss programs and the management of chronic diabetes. ... > full story

Simple rubber device mimics complex bird songs (November 22, 2010) -- Scientists have reproduced many of the characteristics of real bird song with a simple physical model made of a rubber tube. ... > full story

Parental divorce in childhood linked to stroke in adulthood (November 22, 2010) -- Children who experience a parental divorce are over twice as likely to suffer a stroke at some point in their lives, according to new research. ... > full story

New spinal implant to help people with paraplegia exercise paralyzed limbs (November 22, 2010) -- Engineers have developed a new type of microchip muscle stimulator implant that will enable people with paraplegia to exercise their paralyzed leg muscles. It is the first time that researchers have developed a device of this kind that is small enough to be implanted into the spinal canal and incorporates the electrodes and muscle stimulator in one unit. The implant is the size of a child's fingernail. ... > full story

Method for manufacturing patient-specific human platelets (November 22, 2010) -- Skin cells from humans can be revamped into pro-clotting cells called platelets, according to a new study. Patients with diseases causing thrombocytopenia -- platelet deficiency -- often require repeated transfusions with platelets obtained from healthy donors. ... > full story

Jump rope aerodynamics (November 22, 2010) -- Engineers have built a robotic jump rope device and used it to study the underlying physics of jumping rope. ... > full story

Hong Kong hospital reports possible airborne influenza transmission (November 22, 2010) -- Researchers have examined an influenza outbreak in a Hong Kong hospital and the possible role of aerosol transmission. ... > full story

Nanoparticles’ effects on plants examined (November 22, 2010) -- Using particles that are 1/100,000 the width of a human hair to deliver drugs to cells or assist plants in fighting off pests may become commonplace in the near future. However, results of studies in animals have also raised concerns about the potential toxicity of nanoparticles. ... > full story

Military experts provide civilian surgeons with guidance on handling bomb blast injuries (November 22, 2010) -- Hospitals all over the world need to be aware of how to treat emergency blast injuries and military surgeons can provide valuable knowledge and advice to their civilian counterparts based on their experience of battlefield injuries. ... > full story

Important brain area organized by color and orientation (November 22, 2010) -- A brain area known to play a critical role in vision is divided into compartments that respond separately to different colors and orientations, researchers have discovered. The findings have important implications for furthering our understanding of perception and attention. ... > full story

Rare disease reveals new path for creating stem cells (November 22, 2010) -- Researchers have found that by mimicking a rare genetic disorder in a dish, they can rewind the internal clock of a mature cell and drive it back into an adult stem-cell stage. ... > full story

Should airplanes look like birds? (November 22, 2010) -- Airplanes do not look much like birds, but should they? This question is exactly what a pair of engineers inadvertently answered recently in experiments. ... > full story

Gene screening may refine prediction of heart attack risk, researchers say (November 22, 2010) -- Testing for 11 specific genetic variations in hundreds of people with no history of heart disease provided information that led to revision of their estimated heart attack risk, say researchers. ... > full story

Disaster spawning new concepts in bridge research, testing and safety (November 22, 2010) -- Civil engineers have developed a new system to better analyze the connections that hold major bridge members together, which may improve public safety, help address a trillion-dollar concern about aging infrastructure around the world, and save lives. When testing is complete and the technology implemented, the system might allow a technician working for a day to produce a better analysis of a bridge's structural condition than a more expensive and highly-trained engineer could do in weeks. ... > full story

Newly identified brain pathways vital to understanding language (November 22, 2010) -- A complex network of brain connections necessary for language comprehension has been mapped in new detail, according to recent research. These newly charted pathways will help scientists understand how language is processed in the brain, and how brain injuries disrupt the system. ... > full story

New microscope reveals ultrastructure of cells (November 22, 2010) -- Researchers have developed a new X-ray nanotomography microscope. Using their new system, they can reveal the structures on the smallest components of mammalian cells in three dimensions. ... > full story

New path for colon cancer drug discovery (November 22, 2010) -- An old pinworm medicine is a new lead in the search for compounds that block the Wnt signaling pathway, which has been implicated in colon cancer. The findings suggest a fresh approach for developing therapeutics that target the pathway. ... > full story

How hummingbirds fight the wind: Robotic wing may reveal answer (November 22, 2010) -- Hummingbirds rank among the world's most accomplished hovering animals, but how do they manage it in gusty winds? Researchers have built a robotic hummingbird wing to discover the answer. ... > full story

Kids with larger waist sizes are more likely to have cardiac risk factors (November 22, 2010) -- In a study of more than 4,500 children, researchers found those with higher waist circumferences had significantly higher pulse pressures, which is known to be linked to increased risk of heart-related disorders. ... > full story

Jet engine too hot? Schedule an MRI (November 22, 2010) -- Researchers are using MRI to improve jet engine efficiency. The technique could also provide insights into other fluid mixing problems, ranging from combustion to the flow of oil through porous rock in a well. ... > full story

'Nerd penalty': Social costs of school success are highest for African Americans, study shows (November 22, 2010) -- African American and Native American teens who do well in school suffer from a higher "nerd penalty" than white, Asian and Hispanic youth, according to a new analysis. ... > full story

Evolutionary arms race between plant-eating insects and host plants illuminated (November 22, 2010) -- A newly identified relationship between a fly and a weedy mustard-type plant promises to answer many long-standing questions surrounding the evolutionary arms race between plant-eating insects and their host plants. ... > full story

Protein in the urine: A warning sign for cognitive decline (November 22, 2010) -- Two new studies show a link between protein in the urine on cognitive decline. ... > full story

Enhancing the efficiency of wind turbines (November 22, 2010) -- New ideas for enhancing the efficiency of wind turbines have been developed. These include a new type intelligent system for turbines operating under many different wind conditions and a way to reduce drag on turbine blades by covering them with tiny grooves. ... > full story

Rett syndrome mobilizes jumping genes in the brain (November 22, 2010) -- With few exceptions, jumping genes-restless bits of DNA that can move freely about the genome-are forced to stay put. In patients with Rett syndrome, however, a mutation in the MeCP2 gene mobilizes so-called L1 retrotransposons in brain cells, reshuffling their genomes and possibly contributing to the symptoms of the disease when they find their way into active genes, report researchers. ... > full story

Getting bubbles out of fuel pumps (November 22, 2010) -- When vapor bubbles form and collapse in fluids moving swiftly over steel objects such as those inside fuel pumps, they can damage them. Now researchers detail the results of the first detailed experiments aimed at preventing cavitation damage in jet fuel pumps, which are essential components in modern aircraft. ... > full story

Racial profiling to limit terror attacks is fundamentally flawed, expert says (November 22, 2010) -- Stop using racial profiling, says an expert who claims that as well as being politically and ethically questionable, racial profiling does no better in helping law enforcement officials in their task of catching terrorists than standard uniform random sampling techniques. ... > full story

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